Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1:What is Biology? Unit 2:Ecology Unit 3:The Life of a Cell Unit 4:Genetics Unit 5:Change Through Time Unit 6:Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7:Plants Unit 8:Invertebrates Unit 9:Vertebrates Unit 10:The Human Body
Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1:Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: Ecology Chapter 2:Principles of Ecology Chapter 3:Communities and Biomes Chapter 4:Population Biology Chapter 5:Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3:The Life of a Cell Chapter 6:The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7:A View of the Cell Chapter 8:Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9:Energy in a Cell
Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10:Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11:DNA and Genes Chapter 12:Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13:Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14:The History of Life Chapter 15:The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16:Primate Evolution Chapter 17:Organizing Life’s Diversity
Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18:Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19:Protists Chapter 20:Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21:What Is a Plant? Chapter 22:The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23:Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24:Reproduction in Plants Table of Contents – pages iv-v
Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25:What Is an Animal? Chapter 26:Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27:Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28:Arthropods Chapter 29:Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates
Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30:Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31:Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32:Mammals Chapter 33:Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34:Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35:The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36:The Nervous System Chapter 37:Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38:Reproduction and Development Chapter 39:Immunity from Disease
Unit Overview – pages 250-251 Genetics Mendel and Meiosis DNA and Genes Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Genetic Technology
Chapter Contents – page viii Chapter 11DNA and Genes 11.1:DNA: The Molecule of Heredity 11.1:Section Check 11.2:From DNA to Protein 11.2:Section Check 11.3:Genetic Changes 11.3:Section Check Chapter 11Summary Chapter 11Assessment
Chapter Intro-page 280 What You’ll Learn You will relate the structure of DNA to its function. You will explain the role of DNA in protein production. You will distinguish among different types of mutations.
11.1 Section Objectives – page 281 Section Objectives: • Analyze the structure of DNA • Determine how the structure of DNA enables it to reproduce itself accurately.
Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 What is DNA? • Although the environment influences how an organism develops, the genetic information that is held in the molecules of DNA ultimately determines an organism’s traits. • DNA achieves its control by determining the structure of proteins.
Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 What is DNA? • All actions, such as eating, running, and even thinking, depend on proteins called enzymes. • Enzymes are critical for an organism’s function because they control the chemical reactions needed for life. • Within the structure of DNA is the information for life—the complete instructions for manufacturing all the proteins for an organism.
Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 DNA as the genetic material • In 1952 Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase performed an experiment using radioactively labeled viruses that infect bacteria. • These viruses were made of only protein and DNA.
Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 DNA as the genetic material • Hershey and Chase labeled the virus DNA with a radioactive isotope and the virus protein with a different isotope. • By following the infection of bacterial cells by the labeled viruses, they demonstrated that DNA, rather than protein, entered the cells and caused the bacteria to produce new viruses.
Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 The structure of nucleotides • DNA is a polymer made of repeating subunits called nucleotides. Nitrogenous base Phosphate group Sugar (deoxyribose) • Nucleotides have three parts: a simple sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 The structure of nucleotides • The simple sugar in DNA, called deoxyribose (dee ahk sih RI bos), gives DNA its name—deoxyribonucleic acid. • The phosphate group is composed of one atom of phosphorus surrounded by four oxygen atoms.
Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 The structure of nucleotides • A nitrogenous base is a carbon ring structure that contains one or more atoms of nitrogen. • In DNA, there are four possible nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) Thymine (T) Adenine (A)
Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 The structure of nucleotides • Thus, in DNA there are four possible nucleotides, each containing one of these four bases.
Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 The structure of nucleotides • Nucleotides join together to form long chains, with the phosphate group of one nucleotide bonding to the deoxyribose sugar of an adjacent nucleotide. • The phosphate groups and deoxyribose molecules form the backbone of the chain, and the nitrogenous bases stick out like the teeth of a zipper.
Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 The structure of nucleotides • In DNA, the amount of adenine is always equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is always equal to the amount of cytosine.
Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 The structure of DNA • In 1953, Watson and Crick proposed that DNA is made of two chains of nucleotides held together by nitrogenous bases. • Watson and Crick also proposed that DNA is shaped like a long zipper that is twisted into a coil like a spring. • Because DNA is composed of two strands twisted together, its shape is called double helix.
Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 The importance of nucleotide sequences The sequence of nucleotides forms the unique genetic information of an organism. The closer the relationship is between two organisms, the more similar their DNA nucleotide sequences will be. Chromosome
Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 The importance of nucleotide sequences • Scientists use nucleotide sequences to determine evolutionary relationships among organisms, to determine whether two people are related, and to identify bodies of crime victims.
Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 Replication of DNA • Before a cell can divide by mitosis or meiosis, it must first make a copy of its chromosomes. • The DNA in the chromosomes is copied in a process called DNA replication. • Without DNA replication, new cells would have only half the DNA of their parents.
Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 DNA Replication Replication of DNA Replication
Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 Replication of DNA Click this image to view movie
Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 Copying DNA • DNA is copied during interphase prior to mitosis and meiosis. • It is important that the new copies are exactly like the original molecules.
Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 Copying DNA New DNA molecule Original DNA Strand Free Nucleotides New DNA molecule New DNA Strand Original DNA Strand Original DNA
Section 1 Check Question 1 What importance did the experiment performed by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase have in determining what genetic material was? Answer Many scientists believed protein was the genetic material. However, an experiment using radioactively labeled viruses allowed Hershey and Chase to provide convincing evidence that DNA is the genetic material.
Section 1 Check Question 2 Which of the following is NOT a component of DNA? A. simple sugars B. phosphate groups C. nitrogenous bases D. proteins The answer is D.
Section 1 Check Question 3 Which of the following correctly comprises a complimentary base pair? A. adenine – thymine B. thymine – guanine C. guanine – adenine D. cytosine – thymine The answer is A.
Section 2 Objectives – page 288 Section Objectives • Relate the concept of the gene to the sequence of nucleotides in DNA. • Sequence the steps involved in protein synthesis.
Section 11.2 Summary – pages 288 - 295 Genes and Proteins • The sequence of nucleotides in DNA contain information. • This information is put to work through the production of proteins. • Proteins fold into complex, three- dimensional shapes to become key cell structures and regulators of cell functions.
Section 11.2 Summary – pages 288 - 295 Genes and Proteins • Some proteins become important structures, such as the filaments in muscle tissue. • Other proteins, such as enzymes, control chemical reactions that perform key life functions—breakingdown glucose molecules in cellular respiration, digesting food, or making spindle fibers during mitosis.
Section 11.2 Summary – page 288 - 295 Genes and Proteins • In fact, enzymes control all the chemical reactions of an organism. • Thus, by encoding the instructions for making proteins, DNA controls cells.
Section 11.2 Summary – page 2888- 295 Genes and Proteins • You learned earlier that proteins are polymers of amino acids. • The sequence of nucleotides in each gene contains information for assembling the string of amino acids that make up a single protein.
Section 11.2 Summary – pages 288 - 295 RNA • RNA like DNA, is a nucleic acid. RNA structure differs from DNA structure in three ways. • First, RNA is single stranded—it looks like one-half of a zipper —whereas DNA is double stranded.
Section 11.2 Summary – pages 288 - 295 RNA Ribose • The sugar in RNA is ribose; DNA’s sugar is deoxyribose.
Section 11.2 Summary – pages 288 - 295 RNA • Both DNA and RNA contain four nitrogenous bases, but rather than thymine, RNA contains a similar base called uracil (U). • Uracil forms a base pair with adenine in RNA, just as thymine does in DNA. Uracil Hydrogen bonds Adenine
Section 11.2 Summary – pages 288 - 295 RNA • DNA provides workers with the instructions for making the proteins, and workers build the proteins. • The workers for protein synthesis are RNA molecules.
Section 11.2 Summary – pages 288 - 295 RNA • DNA provides workers with the instructions for making the proteins, and workers build the proteins. • The workers for protein synthesis are RNA molecules. • They take from DNA the instructions on how the protein should be assembled, then—amino acid by amino acid—they assemble the protein.
Section 11.2 Summary – pages 288 - 295 RNA • There are three types of RNA that help build proteins. • Messenger RNA (mRNA), brings instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the cell’s factory floor, the cytoplasm. • On the factory floor, mRNA moves to the assembly line, a ribosome.
Section 11.2 Summary – pages 288 - 295 RNA • The ribosome, made of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), binds to the mRNA and uses the instructions to assemble the amino acids in the correct order.
Section 11.2 Summary – pages 288 - 295 RNA • Transfer RNA (tRNA) is the supplier. Transfer RNA delivers amino acids to the ribosome to be assembled into a protein. Click image to view movie
Section 11.2 Summary – pages 288 - 295 Transcription • In the nucleus, enzymes make an RNA copy of a portion of a DNA strand in a process called transcription.
Section 11.2 Summary – pages 288 - 295 Transcription
The Genetic Code • A code is needed to convert the language of mRNA into the language of proteins. • Biochemists began to crack the genetic code when they discovered that a group of three nitrogenous bases in mRNA code for one amino acid. Each group is known as a codon.
Section 11.2 Summary – pages 288 - 295 The Genetic Code • Sixty-four combinations are possible when a sequence of three bases is used; thus, 64 different mRNA codons are in the genetic code.
Section 11.2 Summary – pages 288 - 295 The Genetic Code The Messenger RNA Genetic Code First Letter Third Letter Second Letter U A G C U U Phenylalanine (UUU) Serine (UCU) Tyrosine (UAU) Cysteine (UGU) C Cysteine (UGC) Phenylalanine (UUC) Serine (UCC) Tyrosine (UAC) A Stop (UGA) Serine (UCA) Stop (UAA) Leucine (UUA) G Leucine (UUG) Serine (UCG) Stop (UAG) Tryptophan (UGG) C U Arginine (CGU) Leucine (CUU) Proline (CCU) Histadine (CAU) Arginine (CGC) Proline (CCC) C Leucine (CUC) Histadine (CAC) A Proline (CCA) Arginine (CGA) Leucine (CUA) Glutamine (CAA) Arginine (CGG) G Glutamine (CAG) Proline (CCG) Leucine (CUG) A U Isoleucine (AUU) Threonine (ACU) Asparagine (AAU) Serine (AGU) C Serine (AGC) Asparagine (AAC) Isoleucine (AUC) Threonine (ACC) A Arginine (AGA) Isoleucine (AUA) Threonine (ACA) Lysine (AAA) G Arginine (AGG) Methionine;Start (AUG) Threonine (ACG) Lysine (AAG) G Glycine (GGU) U Valine (GUU) Alanine (GCU) Aspartate (GAU) Valine (GUC) Aspartate (GAC) Glycine (GGC) Glycine (GGC) C Alanine (GCC) A Glycine (GGA) Alanine (GCA) Glutamate (GAA) Valine (GUA) Glutamate (GAG) Glycine (GGG) Alanine (GCG) G Valine (GUG)