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SERVICES TRADE RESTRICTIVENESS: PROFESSIONAL SERVICES . OECD Experts Meeting on the Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI) Paris, 2-3 July 2009 Massimo Geloso Grosso and Rainer Lanz OECD Trade and Agriculture Directorate. OUTLINE. Review of the methodology Results Robustness checks

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Services trade restrictiveness professional services

SERVICES TRADE RESTRICTIVENESS: PROFESSIONAL SERVICES

OECD Experts Meeting on the Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI)

Paris, 2-3 July 2009

Massimo Geloso Grosso and Rainer Lanz

OECD Trade and Agriculture Directorate


Outline
OUTLINE

  • Review of the methodology

  • Results

  • Robustness checks

  • Relevance for trade

  • Conclusions


Identification of barriers
IDENTIFICATION OF BARRIERS

  • Identification according to three criteria

    • Regulations covered by the GATS framework

    • Restrictions included in RTAs

    • Regulations identified as relevant at the 2008 OECD Experts Meeting on Business Services

  • Main sources of information

    • OECD PMR

    • OECD TAD survey

    • OECD FDI Regulatory Restrictiveness Index


Categories of measures
CATEGORIES OF MEASURES

  • Restrictions on foreign ownership and other market entry conditions

  • Restrictions on the movement of people

  • Discriminatory measures, standards and equivalence

  • Price controls and regulations on market behaviour

  • Barriers to competition

  • Regulatory transparency and licensing/permit systems


Classification of restrictions
CLASSIFICATION OF RESTRICTIONS

  • STRI according to the GATS framework

    • Market access and national treatment

    • Domestic regulation and other

    • Modes of supply

  • Establishment of firms versus their ongoing operations

  • Discriminatory versus non-discriminatory measures


Scoring and weighting
SCORING AND WEIGHTING

  • All variables are transformed into binary

    • 95% of the measures are binary

  • Expert judgment forms the basis for the weighting scheme

    • Weights to each category of measures according to the ranking at the Experts Meeting on Business Services

    • Equal weights have been applied to measures within each category

  • Other weighting schemes have been employed as robustness checks

    • Principal component analysis

    • Equal weights

    • Random weights








Robustness checks and relevance for trade
ROBUSTNESS CHECKS AND RELEVANCE FOR TRADE

  • STRI robust to all alternative weighting schemes

  • Spearman rank correlations of weighting schemes

    • Equal weights: 0.84

    • PCA weights: 0.84

  • STRI negatively associated with:

    • Imports (EBOPS)

    • Inward FDI

    • Inward foreign affiliates sales


Conclusions
CONCLUSIONS

  • Restrictions on foreign ownership and commercial establishment in general

    • Impediments to mode 4 play a non-negligible role

  • Market access and national treatment measures have a similar significance as domestic regulatory and other measures

  • The STRI is remarkably robust to alternative weighting schemes and reflects trade restrictiveness


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