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Trade in Services and Finance & Investment Protocols. Financial Services Liberalisation Forum Johannesburg-South Africa 1-2 nd July 2013. SADC Trade in Services: Basic Issues . Decision to liberalize trade in services in SADC was taken in 2000 Protocol on Trade in Services

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trade in services and finance investment protocols

Trade in Services and Finance & Investment Protocols

Financial Services Liberalisation Forum

Johannesburg-South Africa

1-2nd July 2013

sadc trade in services basic issues
SADC Trade in Services: Basic Issues
  • Decision to liberalize trade in services in SADC was taken in 2000
  • Protocol on Trade in Services
    • Legal framework agreed in 2009, signed by Heads of State in 2012
    • Provides for ground-rules for liberalisation, and negotiations on “commitments “through schedules, to be annexed
  • Several other SADC Protocols address issues related to trade in services
    • Finance and Investment (M3), Draft Protocol on Movement of Persons (M4) & Sector-specific Protocols (e.g. covering transport, communications, education & training, culture, information & sports, energy, health; tourism, etc.)
main objectives of the tis protocol
Main objectives of the TiS Protocol
  • To progressively liberalize intra-regional trade in services (eliminate substantially all discrimination between Member States) with a view to creating a single market for services trade
  • To promote sustainable economic growth and development, to raise living standards & alleviate poverty
  • To enhance the capacity and competitiveness of the services sectors of State Parties
  • To enhance economic development, diversification, local, regional and foreign investment in the services economies of the Region.
how services are traded wide definition
How services are traded – wide definition


Resident from A purchases insurance or banking services from a supplier outside A

A’s resident obtains banking services in B (ATM, foreign exchange services. etc.)

Bank or insurance firm from B sets up subsidiary or branch in A

Managers of Executives from parent company in A are sent to work in subsidiary/branch in country B


1. Cross-border Trade

2. Consumption Abroad

3. Commercial Presence

4. Movement of Natural Persons

financial services classification two approaches
Financial Services classification – two approaches
  • W/120
    • Life, accident and health insurance services (CPC 8121)
    • Non-life insurance services (CPC 8129)
    • Reinsurance and retrocession (CPC 81299*)
    • Services auxiliary to insurance (including broking and agency services (CPC 8140)
  • GATS Annex on FS
    • Direct insurance
      • Life
      • Non-life
    • Reinsurance and retrocession
    • Insurance intermediation (brokerage and agency)
    • Auxiliary services, e.g. consultancy, actuarial, risk assessment and claim settlement

Banking and other Financial services

12 different subsectors covering a wide range of services from

  • Accepting of deposits and other repayable funds from the public
  • Lending of all types
  • Financial leasing
  • All payments and money transmission services
  • Guarantees and commitments
  • Trading for own account or for account of customers of the following:

Money market instruments ; Foreign exchange; Derivative products; Exchange rate and interest rate instruments; Transferable securities; Other negotiable instruments and financial assets

  • Money Broking
  • Asset management
  • Settlement and clearing
  • Information services
  • Advisory, intermediation etc..
key obligations under the tis protocol
Key obligations under the TIS Protocol
  • Most Favoured Nation Treatment - MFN (art 4:1 )
    • immediately and unconditionally accord no less favourable treatment than accorded to like services and service suppliers
  • Right to regulate (art. 5) & domestic regulation (art. 7)
    • in regulating the sector, measures should not impair rights under obligation
  • Mutual recognition art. 7
    • Recognition of requirements, qualifications, licences met or obtained in another state party
key provisions ctd
Key Provisions ctd.
  • Transparency (Protocol art 8)
    • Publish all measures of general application pertain to or affecting operations of the Protocol/agreement
    • Designate/establish enquiry point
  • Progressive liberalisation art. 17
    • Rounds of negotiations (1st round cover 6 sectors)
key provisions ctd1
Key provisions ctd.
  • Transfers (art. 20)
    • … state party shall not apply restrictions to the right of free transfer, into and out of its territory, including of initial plus any additional capital, returns, payments under contract, royalties and fees, proceeds from the sale or liquidation of all or any part of an investment
    • …… in serious balance of payments difficulties, or under imminent threat thereof, the State Party concerned may adopt restrictive measures with regard to transfers and payments relating to services and investment
liberalization of trade in financial services
Liberalization of Trade in Financial Services
  • Market access (art. 14)
    • no quota type restrictions
      • Maximum foreign shareholding requirements
      • Restrictions on direct branching
      • Exclusivity of certain services (e.g. settlement or clearing)
      • Prohibition of cross-border supply
  • National treatment (art. 15)
    • Do not discriminate based on nationality
      • Nationality requirements for Members of Board of directors
      • Higher capital adequacy ratios for foreign suppliers
      • Higher qualitative standards required from foreign suppliers
what do the negotiations on trade in financial services not address
What do the negotiations on trade in financial services not address
  • Cooperation between regulators or supervisors (strategy, promotion, training)
  • Harmonisation or convergence of laws, policies and rules
gats annex on trade in financial services
GATS Annex on Trade in Financial Services
  • …contains the so called ”prudential carve-out”

Para 2 a:

“Notwithstanding any other provisions of the Agreement, a Member shall not be prevented from taking measures for prudential reasons, including for the protection of investors, depositors, policy holders or persons to whom a fiduciary duty is owed by a financial service supplier, or to ensure the integrity and stability of the financial system. Where such measures do not conform with the provisions of the Agreement, they shall not be used as a means of avoiding the Member's commitments or obligations under the Agreement.”

The Prudential Carve-out is NOT part of the SADC Protocol on Trade in Services

Do we assume it applies implicitly? Or incorporate explicitly it into TIS at the end of the negotiations?

1 st round of negotiations
1st round of negotiations
  • Objective Each Member State will provide better treatment to SADC MS in each priority sector than is provided in their GATS schedule
    • No new restrictions to be introduced during the negotiations (“standstill”)
    • Six priority sectors
  • Request – offer processes
    • Request one or more trading partners
    • Offer applies to all state parties
  • Negotiations over period of 3 years (2012 – 2015)
    • Requests (LSO, MUS, ZAF, SWZ& ZMB)- 5 sectors (incl FS)
    • Offers (MUS, SC & SWZ)- 4 sectors (full range of Financial Services included by all)
ptis fip

Economic development through market integration

ptis fip ctd

obligations in FIP annexes complement and supports services liberalisation