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Carbon Chemistry. AKA Organic Chemistry Just the Basics!. C5.8 Carbon Chemistry (MDE).

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carbon chemistry

Carbon Chemistry

AKA Organic Chemistry

Just the Basics!

c5 8 carbon chemistry mde
C5.8 Carbon Chemistry (MDE)
  • The chemistry of carbon is important. Carbon atoms can bond to one another in chains, rings, and branching networks to form a variety of structures, including synthetic polymers, oils, and the large molecules essential to life.
    • C5.8A Draw structural formulas for up to ten carbon chains of simple hydrocarbons.
    • C5.8B Draw isomers for simple hydrocarbons.
    • C5.8C Recognize that proteins, starches, and other large biological molecules are polymers.
interesting carbon facts
Interesting Carbon Facts
  • Carbon is the basis for organic chemistry, as it occurs in all living organisms.
  • Carbon is a nonmetal that can bond with itself and many other chemical elements, forming nearly ten million compounds.
interesting carbon facts1
Interesting Carbon Facts
  • Elemental carbon can take the form of one of the hardest substances (diamond) or one of the softest (graphite).
  • Carbon is made in the interiors of stars, though it was not produced in the Big Bang.
interesting carbon facts2
Interesting Carbon Facts
  • Carbon compounds have limitless uses.
    • Elemental form –
      • Diamond is a gemstone and used for drilling/cutting;
      • Graphite is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and to protect against rust
      • Charcoal is used to remove toxins, tastes, and odors.
      • The isotope Carbon-14 is used in radiocarbon dating.
interesting carbon facts3
Interesting Carbon Facts
  • Carbon has the highest melting/sublimation point of the elements.
    • The melting point of diamond is ~3550°C
    • Sublimation point of carbon around 3800°C.
  • Pure carbon exists free in nature and has been known since prehistoric time.

Cosquer Cave (France)

interesting carbon facts4
Interesting Carbon Facts
  • The origin of the name 'carbon' comes from the Latin word carbo, for charcoal.
  • Pure carbon is considered non-toxic, although inhalation of fine particles, such as soot, can damage lung tissue.
  • Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe (hydrogen, helium, and oxygen are found in higher amounts, by mass).
naming organic molecules
Naming Organic Molecules
  • Organic compounds are named with a different set of rules than Inorganic Compounds.
  • Simplest organic compounds are hydrocarbons (only hydrogen and carbon atoms)
    • Alkanes – Simplest form of hydrocarbon because it only has single bonds.
    • Alkenes – Contain double bonds
    • Alkynes – Contain triple bonds
naming organic molecules1
Naming Organic Molecules
  • First step of naming organic compounds is identifying the number of carbon atoms
    • Add Prefix
naming organic molecules2
Naming Organic Molecules
  • Next, add a suffix to indicate the type of carbon bonds.
    • -ane means single bonds
    • -ene means double bonds
    • -yne means triple bonds
  • If it forms a ring, a pre-pre fix (cyclo-) is added.
naming organic molecules3
Naming Organic Molecules
  • EXAMPLES – Name these:







These are all examples of ALKANES.

Notice: no double bonding!

naming organic molecules4
Naming Organic Molecules
  • EXAMPLE – How about this?
  • These are all the same, but drawn differently.
  • To account for the alkene, we have to identify location.
  • It is attached to the third carbon, therefore its name:


  • Definition:
    • A chemical species with the same number and types of atoms as another chemical species, but possessing different properties.
  • What does that mean???
    • Carbons can be arranged in different ways, even though it has the same formula.
  • The larger the molecule, the more isomers it can have.
oh no naming these things
OH NO! Naming these things!
  • The parent compound must have the longest chain of carbon atoms.
  • The parent chain is numbered to give substituents the lowest possible numbers.
    • Substituent names are methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, etc.
  • The number showing the point of attachment to the parent chain precedes the substituent name.


examples try to name these
Examples – Try to name these:



wait there s more
Wait, there’s more!!!
  • But we don’t need to bother with that… Lets move on!
michigan standard c5 8c
Michigan Standard C5.8C
    • Recognize that proteins, starches, and other large biological molecules are polymers.
  • Polymer???
    • Take organic compounds and link them together and…
      • IT’S A POLYMER!
    • Living things use these all the time!
  • Remember way back when you took biology???
  • Sugars linked together!
  • You made it! I think we have this covered!
    • Identifying organic compounds worksheet.