lecture 7 mssr n.
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  2. ATM Ground Based Surveillance Non-Cooperative Independent Surveillance: Calculates the (2D) position without reliance on aircraft avionics • Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR) Cooperative Independent Surveillance: Provides the calculated aircraft 3D position and processes other aircraft avionic data (Mode A/C/S, DAPs or ADD) • (Monopulse) Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR), SSR Mode S, Airport Multilateration (MLAT) and Wide Area Multilateration (WAM) Cooperative Dependent Surveillance: Provides the aircraft derived position (GPS or INS) and other aircraft avionic data (including ADD) to broadcast “air-ground” and “air-air” • ADS-B, (ADS-C)

  3. Surveillance Strategy 3 pillars of mutually interoperable and compatible technologies Primary Radar MLAT WAM MSSR SSR Mode S ADS-B Surveillance Data processing systems

  4. Surveillance Choice The Surveillance Strategy for ECAC does not mandate the implementation of any specific surveillance technology or technique, but leaves the choice of ground based surveillance systems to the (ANSP) surveillance provider, depending on: • Operational Requirements • Safety assessment • The business case (geography, cost, topology, preference, integration risk, redundancy, integrity, etc). PSR is required in TMAs to cater for failed avionics in a critical phase of flight.

  5. Primary Surveillance Radar • Primary Surveillance Radars are expensive, high powered and spectrum inefficient • The maintenance and support lifecycle cost are high • Some European Air Navigation Service Providers are considering not replacing primary radar in the future • However, PSR is a safety net in TMA • EUROCONTROL is investigating the possibility of a more cost effective alternative solution for Primary Surveillance Radar

  6. - Available - R&D required PSR “Multi-Static PSR” (MSPSR) - Operational MSSR/SSR Mode S MSSR/SSR Mode S WAM - Operational MSSR/SSR Mode S - Planned MSSR/SSR Mode S ADS-B WAM ADS-B - Foreseen TMA / En-Route Ground Based Surveillance For safety or security reasons, Non-Cooperative Independent Surveillance as implemented, if required: Until 2020+, at least one layer of ATM ground surveillance should be an co-operative independent surveillance to meet safety requirements: Layer 2 Layer 1 Status:

  7. SMR - Available at most airports Airport Surveillance Status: Multilateration (MLAT) - Operational at many major European airport ADS-B - Planned at secondary airports TIS-B - TIS-B or equivalent required for highest levels of A-SMGCS. Not yet implemented. Airports Ground Based Surveillance For safety reasons, Non-cooperative Independent Surveillance is implemented, as required: To provide an Airport Situation Picture, including identification of aircraft and vehicles, a cooperative independent surveillance is required, that also supports the implementation of higher A-SMGCS levels.

  8. SESAR - Surveillance Systems Some other Surveillance Systems identified by SESAR: • Weather Radar • Ground Based • Airborne • Wake Vortex detection • Ground Based • Airborne • Special surveillance systems • Debris detection • Low Power SSR (Mode S) Transponder NOT currently included in the SUR Strategy

  9. Wide Area Multilateration (WAM) • Some WAM systems already in operational use, however Standards not yet generally available. • ICAO ASP working to “recognise” WAM in ICAO Docs. • EUROCAE WG 70 “WAM MOPS” due mid 2008. • Certification based on comparison with the SSR Standards; shows performance equal to or better than SSR. • Generic Safety Statement, available end 2007. • Guidelines for Approval/Certification due early 2008.

  10. ADS-B Out • ADS-B NRA (SPR/Interop) developed by RFG. • ADS-B RAD due mid 2008 • ADS-B APT and ADS-B SURF due mid 2009 • 1090ES transponder numbers increasing in European airspace. • However, currently there are some issues that require attention • There is no mandate yet for the carriage of 1090 ES • No certification yet, NRA due end 2007 (Certification generally 1yr after Standards available) • The aircraft avionic position potentially needs to be verified by an independent means of surveillance (resultsfrom safety work) • Combination of ADS-B/WAM likely future surveillance scenario

  11. ADS-B In • ADS-B “in” is required for ATSA andASAS applications, these will become more and more important • ATSA VSA and ATSA ITP standards due mid 2008 • ATSA AIRB standards due 2009 • Other ATSA and ASAS standards (SPR + Interop) will come later.