Animal care and use what researchers need to know
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Animal Care and Use: What Researchers Need to Know Animal Research Statistics 2001 statistics (National Association for Biomedical Research) 30 Million lab animals used annually 1.2 million regulated species Slight trend toward annual reductions

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Animal Research Statistics

  • 2001 statistics (National Association for Biomedical Research)

    • 30 Million lab animals used annually

    • 1.2 million regulated species

  • Slight trend toward annual reductions

  • USDA Regulated Animals in Research (FY 2004) SpeciesNumbers

    • Dogs 64,932

    • Cats 23,640

    • Non-human primates 54,998

    • Guinea pigs 244,104

    • Hamsters 175,721

    • Rabbits 261,573

    • Sheep 19,218

    • Pigs 54,504

    • Other farm animals 31,956

    • Other animals 171,312

    • Total 1,101,958

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  • Animal Welfare Act (1966) and Health Research Extension Act (1985) stipulate animal welfare regulations

    • Humane care

    • Minimization of pain and distress

  • Emphasizes minimal use of animals and appropriate justification

    • The 3 r’s

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U.S. Government Principles Used to Guide Animal Research

  • Justification of research

    • Relevance to human or animal health, the advancement of knowledge, and good of society

  • Justification of animal use and numbers

  • Proper use of animals

    • Minimization of pain, discomfort, and distress

    • Humane euthanasia if pain cannot be relieved

  • Appropriate care of research animals under veterinary supervision by trained personnel

  • Experimentation only by trained personnel

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Standards for Animal Care

  • Primary reference for animal care and use

  • National Academy of Science publication

  • Basis for Public Health Service standards on animal care

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Requirements of Research Institutions

  • Assurance to follow federal guidelines - OLAW

    • Describes program for animal care and use including facilities and training program for researchers

    • Occupational health and safety program

    • Numbers and types of animals used

  • Submit to inspections

  • Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)

    • Assesses all research activities involving live vertebrate animals

  • Keep records of all activities

  • Provide annual report to OLAW

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    IACUC Requirements

    • Membership – at least five members with four mandatory components

      • Veterinarian

      • Scientist

      • Non-scientist

      • Community member (not affiliated with institution)

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    IACUC Functions

    • Review all research proposals and monitor their activity to assess adherence to PHS government principles

    • Semi annual facilities inspections

    • Semi annual program reports and recommendations to Institutional Official

    • Program review

    • Suspend research activities if violations occur

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    Importance of IACUC oversight for researchers

    • Meet legal requirements – significant penalties for non-compliance

    • Training – improves study design

    • Research quality – healthy animals yield better data

    • Publication requirement – IACUC approval is a publication prerequisite in most journals

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    Requirements for Researchers: Prerequisites for Research

    • Training

      • Online Animal Care Module(s)

      • Lab-specific Training

    • Occupational Health Screening

    • Protocol approval by IACUC

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    Responsibilities of Researchers

    • Obtain permission to conduct research on vertebrate animals

    • Abide by all institutional and PHS policies

    • Ensure that all personnel involved with approved projects are appropriately trained

    • Comply with IACUC decisions

    • Allow inspection of animal care and research areas

    • Make no changes to approved protocols without IACUC consultation and approval

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    The research protocol: basic components

    • Species and approximate numbers used

    • Rationale for animal use, appropriateness of species, and benefits of research

    • Complete description of animal use and care

    • Descriptions of how injury and discomfort will be minimized to that which is unavoidable to conduct research and managed by anesthetics or analgesics

    • Description of any euthanasia methods used

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    MSU Protocol Cover Page

    • Project Title

    • Contact Information

      • Principal investigator

    • Project Characterization

      • Status (new, renewal, amendment to existing protocol)

      • Type

      • Research category

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    Protocol : Section 1

    • Personnel Information

      • Identify everyone involved with project

      • Describe all relevant training

        • List online modules

        • Lab –specific training

        • Previous experience

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    Protocol Section 2: Project Description

    • Non-technical summary – lay audience

      • Objectives

      • Benefit of study (society, education, animals)

      • Experimental design and methods

      • Duration of project

    • Justification

      • Species used and numbers required

      • Use as many relevant arguments as possible

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    Protocol Section 2.3Required Keyword Search

    • Evaluate literature for appropriate and/or alternative methods

    • Important criteria

      • Duplication of effort

      • Use of animal model

    • Must be current (< 2 months old)

    • Required information:

      • Date of search

      • Keywords used

      • Search resources

      • Years covered by search results

    • Written summary of results

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    Section 3: Animal Use

    • Animal Sources, species, and numbers used

      • Sources must be approved for lab animals

      • Wild animals must be collected with permission

    • Animal facilities:

      • Where housed

      • Location of any research activities

    • Animal husbandry summary

      • Housing, food, environmental or lab conditions, etc.

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    Animal Use: Procedures

    • Animal procedures

      • Check appropriate boxes

      • Some require additional forms (surgery, field studies, etc.)

    • Pain and distress

      • Indicate number of each animal used in each pain category

      • Category 5 pain must be carefully justified

    • Pain alleviation

      • Drug type and administration

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    Investigator Assurances

    • Signed list of statements that confirms adherence to rules

    • Declaration that everything is correct and that you will follow the protocol as approved

    • Signature for PI and Co-PI (graduate student)