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The STD Collection, 2007. These PowerPoint slides are a collection of some of the better extra credit projects submitted this last Tuesday. These are NOT the ONLY good ones. I have made a few changes including the removal of the truly gross photos.

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The STD Collection, 2007


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    1. The STD Collection, 2007 These PowerPoint slides are a collection of some of the better extra credit projects submitted this last Tuesday. These are NOT the ONLY good ones. I have made a few changes including the removal of the truly gross photos. On the exam, there will be at least one multiple choice question from each disease included in the collection. These will NOT be difficult questions. They will only require that you look through and carefully read the slides in this collection. -RJP

    2. Genital Warts Genital Warts Alannah Finnan May 22, 2007 Period 2 Alannah FinnanMay 22, 2007Period 2

    3. What is Genital Warts? • Also known as, or referred to as, Condyloma, Condylomata, and Venereal Warts. Genital warts is a high contagious disease sexually transmitted infection (STD). They are spread from direct skin to skin contact during oral, genital, or anal sex with an infected partner. Genital Herpes can ultimately cause cervical cancer [1] [1]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genital_warts

    4. The Appearance of Genital Warts • Some people can have very mild genital warts and not have any symptoms at all, so they don’t even know that they are infected. • The main signs of genital warts are sores around the vagina, on the penis, or near the anus. Sometimes genital herpes sores appear on the scrotum, buttocks, or thighs. • There are different types of outbreaks which include with swollen groin glands, discharge from the penis or vagina, painful or difficult urination, fever, headache, and muscle ache. http://www.famvir.com/info/about/genital-herpes-symptoms.jsp?creative=100002&site=100005&irmasrc =FVRWB0009& source=01030 &campaign=SAM9193

    5. Appearance Continued… • Most outbreaks appear about 4 to 7 days after the actual infection and will last up to 10 to 20 days.[1] • They usually begin as a rash of red bumps. The bumps then turn into blisters. It is common for the blisters to open up, sometimes causing severe pain. In time, the sores will scab over and heal. [1] • Some other symptoms are cauliflower-like growth around penis, vagina, and anus, itching, genital lesions, bleeding, raised, flesh-colored lesions, irritation, increased dampness or moisture in the area of growths, and raised warty tumors on the genital and anal area [2] [1]http://www.famvir.com/info/about/genital-herpes-symptoms.jsp?creative=100002&site=100005&irmasrc =FVRWB0009& source=01030 &campaign=SAM9193[2]http://www.genitalwartsrelief.com/?gclid=CM6On8usoIwCFRmxgAodshRQ0w

    6. Reoccurring Outbreaks • The signs of recurrent (repeated) outbreaks of genital herpes are similar to the signs of the first outbreak, but they may not be as severe. Some people may have no herpes symptoms, but they can still spread the virus. [1] • Reoccurring outbreaks are usually shorter than the first, lasting about 7 to 10 days. [1] • During repeated outbreaks with herpes symptoms, the sores almost always appear on the same side of the body each time. [1] • Warts may return, even after treatment, this is because the virus stays in your skin once you are infected. [2] [1]http://www.famvir.com/info/about/genital-herpes-symptoms.jsp?creative=100002&site=100005&irmasrc=FVRWB0009&source=01030&campaign=SAM9193 [2]http://www.dph.sf.ca.us/HealthInfo/std_warts.htm

    7. Reoccurring Outbreaks cont… • Once infected and Genital Warts are reoccurring they usually happen in several stages. These stages are: • Small red areas appear and may be sensitive, itchy, or painful. These areas may swell slightly. • Next, small blisters filled with fluid form in the same area as the rash. • The blisters can open up and form open sores, which may be quite painful. • As the sores start to heal, they crust over. New skin grows beneath the scab. When the crust falls off, the sore is healed. [1] [1]http://www.famvir.com/info/about/genital-herpes-symptoms.jsp?creative=100002&site=100005&irmasrc=FVRWB0009&source=01030&campaign=SAM9193

    8. Genital Herpes in the U.S. • Nearly three out of four Americans between the ages of 15 and 49 have been infected with genital HPV in their lifetime.[1] • About 14,000 cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed in the United States each year.[1] • Over 5,000 women each year die of cervical cancer in the United States.[1] • Scientists estimate that as many as 6 million new cases of genital warts are diagnosed in the United States each year. [2] • About 40 million Americans are infected with genital warts. [3] [1] http://www.ashastd.org/hpv/hpv_learn_fastfacts.cfm[2] http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/infections/std/genital_warts.html[3] http://www.intheknowzone.com/hpv/stats.htm

    9. Genital Herpes in the U.S. Cont.http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats/figures/fig41.htm

    10. Genital Warts in the World • About 5.5 million new genital HPV cases occur each year -- this is about 1/3 of all new STD infections. [1] • About 20 million people -- men and women -- are thought to have an active HPV infection at any given time.[1] • The incidence of genital warts has doubled over the last 10 years.[2] • Genital warts are most common among men and women between 20 and 24 years of age. [3] [1] http://www.ashastd.org/hpv/hpv_learn_fastfacts.cfm[2] http://www.stdservices.on.net/std/warts/details.htm#Statistics[3] http://www.intheknowzone.com/hpv/stats.htm

    11. Genital Warts in the World Cont. • For an excellent chart on the numbers for genital warts in the World visit… http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/g/genital_warts/stats-country.htm -Scroll downward until you start the beginning of a shockingly, large chart.

    12. Treatment of Genital Warts • A clinician can put a cold liquid nitrogen chemical on the warts to remove them, however you may need to come back more than once to finish the wart treatment.[1] This is called Cryotherapy. • No single treatment is effective in eliminating warts and preventing them from coming back. Genital warts may go away on their own in about 10–20% of people over a period of three to four months. [2] [1] http://www.dph.sf.ca.us/HealthInfo/std_warts.htm[2] http://www.emedicinehealth.com/genital_warts/page7_em.htm#Medical%20Treatment

    13. Treatment Continued… • Laser treatment: This treatment is used for extensive or recurrent genital warts. It may require local, regional, or general anesthesia. The laser physically destroys the HPV–induced lesion. Disadvantages include high cost, increased healing time, scarring, and potentially infectious viral particles in the air caused by the laser plume. [1] • Electrodessication: This technique uses an electric current to destroy the warts. It can be done in the office with local anesthesia. The resulting smoke plume may be infectious. [1] [1] http://www.emedicinehealth.com/genital_warts/page7_em.htm#Medical%20Treatment

    14. Gonorrhea Maria Lindsey Biology 6

    15. The disease organism • Gonorrhea is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (1) • This bacterium can grow and multiply easily in the warm, moist areas of the reproductive tract, including: (2) • the cervix (opening to the womb) • uterus (womb) • and fallopian tubes (egg canals) in women • in the urethra (urine canal) in women and men • This bacterium can also grow in the mouth, throat, eyes, and anus (2) • (1) http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec14/ch194/ch194e.html • (2) http://www.cdc.gov/std/Gonorrhea/STDFact-gonorrhea.htm#What

    16. The disease organism (continued) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Neisseria_gonorrhoeae_PHIL_3693_lores.jpg

    17. Symptoms • Symptoms of rectal infection: • Discharge • anal itching • Soreness • Bleeding • or painful bowel movements • Or no symptoms at all • Infections in the throat • sore throat • Usually none • The bacteria are carried in semen and vaginal fluids and cause a discharge in men and women. A small number of people may be infected for several months without showing symptoms. • http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/stdgon.htm • Picture: http://prs-sun-107-nyeh-peshr-hme0-39.digisle.net/science/science_news/articles/testing_times.html

    18. Signs & Symptoms in men • Men have symptoms more often than women, including • White, yellow, or green pus from the penis with pain • Burning sensations during urination that may be severe • Swollen or painful testicles • If left untreated, men could experience prostate complications and epididymitis (inflammation of the testicles). • http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/stdgon.htm

    19. In women • For women, the early symptoms of gonorrhea often are mild. Symptoms usually appear within 2 to 10 days after sexual contact with an infected partner. When women have symptoms, the first ones may include • Bleeding associated with vaginal intercourse • Painful or burning sensations when urinating • Yellow or bloody vaginal discharge • More advanced symptoms, which may indicate development of PID, include cramps and pain, bleeding between menstrual periods, vomiting, or fever. • http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/stdgon.htm

    20. In women • In women, the symptoms of gonorrhea are often mild, but most women who are infected have no symptoms. Even when a woman has symptoms, they can be so non-specific as to be mistaken for a bladder or vaginal infection. The initial symptoms and signs in women include a painful or burning sensation when urinating, increased vaginal discharge, or vaginal bleeding between periods. Women with gonorrhea are at risk of developing serious complications from the infection, regardless of the presence or severity of symptoms. • http://www.cdc.gov/std/Gonorrhea/STDFact-gonorrhea.htm#What

    21. Contracting the disease • Two ways of contracting Gonorrhea • Contact with a person who carries the virus • Contact between mother and child during delivery • Contact • is spread through contact with the penis, vagina, mouth, or anus • Ejaculation does not have to occur for gonorrhea to be transmitted or acquired • Gonorrhea can also be spread from mother to baby during delivery • People who have had gonorrhea and received treatment may get infected again if they have sexual contact with a person infected with gonorrhea. • Anyone can contract the disease if they are sexually active • HOWEVER– Those at the highest risk are • Teenagers • Young adults • African Americans http://www.cdc.gov/std/Gonorrhea/STDFact-gonorrhea.htm#What

    22. If not treated • Untreated gonorrhea can cause serious and permanent health problems in both women and men. (1) • It can spread to the following • The reproductive tract • The blood stream • Joints, causing inflamation • Heart valves • The brain • Although his condition can be life threatening. • People with gonorrhea can more easily contract HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. • HIV-infected people with gonorrhea are more likely to transmit HIV to someone else. • http://www.cdc.gov/std/Gonorrhea/STDFact-gonorrhea.htm#What 419.bittenus.com/marianauthor/index.htm

    23. If not treated for women • In women, gonorrhea is a common cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) • About one million women each year in the United States develop PID • Women with PID do not necessarily have symptoms. When symptoms are present, they can be very severe and can include: • abdominal pain • fever • PID can lead to: • internal abscesses • pus-filled “pockets” that are hard to cure • long-lasting, chronic pelvic pain • damage the fallopian tubes enough to cause infertility • increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy • This is a life-threatening condition in which a fertilized egg grows outside the uterus, usually in a fallopian tube. • http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/stdgon.htm • Picture: www.fotosearch.com/PHT286/paa289000015/

    24. If not treated for men • In men, gonorrhea can cause epididymitis • a painful condition of the testicles that can lead to infertility if left untreated • http://www.cdc.gov/std/Gonorrhea/STDFact-gonorrhea.htm#What • Also, gonorrhea affects the prostate gland and may cause scarring in the urine canal. • http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/stdgon.htm

    25. Pregnant women • If a pregnant woman has gonorrhea, she may give the infection to her baby as the baby passes through the birth canal during delivery • In the baby, this can cause: • Blindness • joint infection • life-threatening blood infection • Treatment of gonorrhea as soon as it is detected in pregnant women will reduce the risk of these complications • http://www.cdc.gov/std/Gonorrhea/STDFact-gonorrhea.htm#What • A health care provider can prevent infection of your baby's eyes by applying silver nitrate or other medicine to the eyes immediately after birth. • Because of the risks from gonococcal infection to both you and your baby, health experts recommend that pregnant women have at least one test for gonorrhea during prenatal care • When gonorrhea occurs in the genital tract, mouth, or rectum of a child, it is due most commonly to sexual abuse. • http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/stdgon.htm Picture: www.linnealenkus.com/pregnancy3.html

    26. http://www.soc.ucsb.edu/sexinfo/images/gonorrhea_infant.JPG www.uottawa.ca/.../sex-gonorrhea-images.html

    27. How its diagnosed • Health care providers usually use three laboratory techniques to diagnose gonorrhea. • Staining samples directly for the bacterium • Detecting bacterial genes or DNA in urine • Growing the bacteria in laboratory cultures • Many providers prefer to use more than one test to increase the chance of an accurate diagnosis. • You usually can get the staining test results while in the office or clinic • http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/stdgon.htm • Picture: http://healthdept.ci.lubbock.tx.us/Prevention/prog1.htm

    28. How its diagnosed (continued) • This test is quite accurate for men but not so in women • Only one in two women with gonorrhea has a positive stain. • More often, health care providers use urine or cervical swabs for a new test that detects the genes of the bacteria. These tests are more accurate than culturing the bacteria. • The laboratory culture test involves placing a sample of the discharge onto a culture plate. The health care provider also can take a culture to detect gonorrhea in the throat. Culture also allows testing for drug-resistant bacteria. • http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/stdgon.htm

    29. Prevention • Abstinence • Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, can reduce the risk of transmission of gonorrhea • The person and all of his or her sex partners must avoid sex until they have completed their treatment for gonorrhea. • http://www.cdc.gov/std/Gonorrhea/STDFact-gonorrhea.htm#What

    30. How its treated • Several antibiotics can successfully cure gonorrhea in adolescents and adults • However, drug-resistant strains of gonorrhea are increasing in many areas of the world, including the United States, and successful treatment of gonorrhea is becoming more difficult • Persons with gonorrhea should be tested for other STDs. • Although medication will stop the infection, it will not repair any permanent damage done by the disease • People who have had gonorrhea and have been treated can get the disease again if they have sexual contact with persons infected with gonorrhea • If a person's symptoms continue even after receiving treatment, he or she should return to a doctor to be reevaluated. • http://www.cdc.gov/std/Gonorrhea/STDFact-gonorrhea.htm#What

    31. How it is treated (continued) • Health care providers usually prescribe a single dose of one of the following antibiotics to treat gonorrhea. • Cefixime • Ceftriaxone • Ciprofloxacin • Ofloxacin • Levofloxacin • If you are pregnant, or are younger than 18 years old, you should not be treated with certain types of antibiotics • Gonorrhea and chlamydia often infect people at the same time • Therefore, health care providers usually prescribe a combination of antibiotics, such as ceftriaxone and doxycycline or azithromycin, which will treat both diseases. • http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/stdgon.htm Picture: www.clermonthealthdistrict.org/default.php?se...

    32. By gender and age groups http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats/figures/fig18.htm

    33. In the US http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats/figures/fig15.htm

    34. In different states

    35. Genital Herpes Stephanie Pendleton

    36. What is Genital Herpes? • Genital herpes is a very contagious sexually transmitted disease (STD) (1) • It is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV) (3) • There are two types of herpes simplex virus infections that can cause genital herpes. (3) • HSV type 1 (HSV-1) is the type that usually causes cold sores or fever blisters around your mouth, though it can be spread to your genital area during oral sex. • HSV type 2 (HSV-2) is the type that commonly causes genital herpes. • The genital sores caused by either virus look the same. (3) • This virus enters your body through small breaks in your skin or mucous membranes (2) 1.http://www.cdc.gov/std/Herpes/STDFact-Herpes.htm#common 2.http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/genital-herpes/DS00179 3. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/genital_herpes

    37. Initial Outbreak • There is sometimes an initial outbreak of herpes • It tends to develop 3-7 days (2) to 14 days (1) of skin-to-skin contact with an infected person. • It can last from two to three weeks • But, 80-90% of those infected fail to recognize herpes symptoms or have no symptoms at all. 1.http://www.cdc.gov/std/Herpes/STDFact-Herpes.htm#common 2. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/genital_herpes

    38. What are the symptoms? • The symptoms of genital herpes vary from person to person • Some people have severe symptoms while others have mild symptoms • Typically, another outbreak can appear weeks or months after the first, but it almost always is less severe and shorter than the first outbreak • Although the infection can stay in the body indefinitely, the number of outbreaks tends to decrease over a period of years. 1. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/genital_herpes

    39. small red bumps on the penis, vagina, or wherever the infection began. These bumps may become blisters or painful open sores that can take up to four weeks to heal. itching or burning in the genital area pain in the legs, buttocks, or genital area vaginal discharge feeling pressure or discomfort around your stomach fever headache muscle aches pain when urinating swollen glands in the genital area Symptoms http://www.emedicinehealth.com/genital_herpes

    40. http://healthgate.partners.org/images/si2176.jpg

    41. Complications • In healthy adults, genital herpes generally doesn't cause other serious permanent complications besides the sores • However, people with weakened immune systems may have more severe and longer lasting outbreaks • Having genital herpes can increase the risk of transmitting or contracting other sexually transmitted diseases, including the AIDS virus • A mother with open sores can spread the infection to her newborn as the infant passes through the birth canal • Genital herpes may result in brain damage, blindness or death for the newborn • The infection is more common in infants born to mothers who are having their first outbreak of active herpes infection at the time of delivery http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/genital-herpes/DS00179/DSECTION=5

    42. How people get Genital Herpes? • Sexual intercourse &oral sex = most common methods of spreading genital herpes. • Any type of skin-to-skin contact, however, is capable of spreading herpes. • HSV-1 and HSV-2 can be found in and released from the sores that the viruses cause, but they also are released between outbreaks from skin that does not appear to be broken or to have a sore. • Generally, a person can only get HSV-2 infection during sexual contact with someone who has a genital HSV-2 infection. • Transmission can occur from an infected partner who does not have a visible sore and may not know that he or she is infected. • HSV-1 can cause genital herpes, but it more commonly causes infections of the mouth and lips, so-called "fever blisters." • HSV-1 infection of the genitals can be caused by oral-genital or genital-genital contact with a person who has HSV-1 infection. Genital HSV-1 outbreaks recur less regularly than genital HSV-2 outbreaks. http://www.cdc.gov/std/Herpes/STDFact-Herpes.htm#common

    43. Can I get it from using the bathroom? • It's almost impossible to get the infection through contact with toilets, towels or oter objects used by an infected person • because the virus dies quickly outside the body. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/genital-herpes/DS00179

    44. Is there a cure? • There is no treatment that can cure herpes • However, antiviral medications can shorten and prevent outbreaks during the period of time the person takes the medication. • In addition, daily suppressive therapy for symptomatic herpes can reduce transmission to partners http://www.valtrex.com/?rotation=12818734&banner=28479106 http://www.famvir.com

    45. How to diagnose? • The signs and symptoms associated with HSV-2 can vary greatly. • Health care providers can diagnose genital herpes by visual inspection if the outbreak is typical, and by taking a sample from the sore(s) and testing it in a laboratory • Blood tests, which detect HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection, may be helpful, although the results are not always clear ://www.4woman.gov/faq/stdherpe.htm#1

    46. How common? • About 45 million Americans, age 12 and older have genital herpes (1) • As many as 80-90% of those infected fail to recognize herpes symptoms or have no symptoms at all. (3) • HSV is present in as many as one in six teens and adults in the U.S. (2) • It’s estimated that up to one million people become infected each year. (1) • Genital Herpes (HSV-2) is more common in women than men. (1) • approximately ¼ women & 1/5 men are infected (1) • This may be due to male-to-female transmissions being more likely than female-to-male transmission (1) 1.http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/genital-herpes/DS00179 2. http://www.cdc.gov/std/Herpes/STDFact-Herpes.htm#common 3. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/genital_herpes/article_em.htm

    47. How to Prevent? • to abstain from sexual contact, or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected. • Genital ulcer diseases can occur in both male and female genital areas that are covered or protected by a latex condom, as well as in areas that are not covered. • Correct and consistent use of latex condoms can reduce the risk of genital herpes only when the infected area or site of potential exposure is protected. • Since a condom may not cover all infected areas, even correct and consistent use of latex condoms cannot guarantee protection from genital herpes. • Persons with herpes should abstain from sexual activity with uninfected partners when lesions or other symptoms of herpes are present. • It is important to know that even if a person does not have any symptoms he or she can still infect sex partners. • Sex partners of infected persons should be advised that they may become infected. • Sex partners can seek testing to determine if they are infected with HSV. A positive HSV-2 blood test most likely indicates a genital herpes infection. ://www.4woman.gov/faq/stdherpe.htm#1

    48. Self-Care • If you have an active infection: • Avoid having sex • Keep the sores clean and dry. • Avoid touching the sores, and wash your hands after contact with sores. • Remember that the virus can spread even when no symptoms are present. • Wait until all sores are completely healed before resuming sexual activity, and always use latex condoms to reduce the chances that you'll infect your partner http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/genital-herpes/DS00179/DSECTION=8

    49. AIDS Ashley Power & Collier Perno

    50. AIDS • AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome • To break this down • Acquired: you can get infected with it • Immune Deficiency: weakness in the body’s system that fights diseases • Syndrome: a group of health problems that make up a disease http://www.aids.org/Factsheets/101-What-is-AIDS.html