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Development Of Policing In America. Early America. Important Factors. NATURE OF CRIME GROWTH OF CITIES POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IDEOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OF THE “NEW NATION”. Borrowed From The English Tradition.

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important factors
Important Factors
borrowed from the english tradition
Borrowed From The English Tradition
  • CULTURAL MIMESIS – Applies to people leaving their “homeland” and settling in a new land and taking with them:
    • IDEAS
settlement areas
Settlement Areas
    • New England/Massachusetts
    • New York
    • North Carolina
    • South Carolina
the english tradition
The English Tradition
  • Community-based police arrangement
    • Posse comitatus, hue and cry, kin police, Frankenpledge, tithings, hundreds, constables, shire-reeves (rural)
    • Night watch, day constabulary, “Old Charlies” (urban)
  • Individual rights
    • Parliamentary restrictions - civil rights vs. power of authorities to maintain order
england to america
England to America
  • Large number of convicts sent to America
    • First formal transportation in 1615
    • Transportation Act (1718)
    • Reprieves, Pardons or Banishments (7 yr period) from 1718 – 1775 about 30,000
    • Similar policies in Scotland, Ireland, & Wales (another 20,000)
nature of crime in colonial and revolutionary america
Nature of Crime in Colonial and Revolutionary America
  • Conditions
    • Economic uncertainty
    • Danger from hostile attack
    • Large number of convicts as immigrants
  • Questions
    • Nature of Crime?
    • How effectively was it dealt with?
crime in the northeast
Crime in the Northeast
  • Serious crimes – from murder to violent theft, etc, were less of a concern to the “citizens”
  • Less serious crimes – selling liquor without a license, “misbehaving on the Sabbath”, etc. gained most attention from the citizenry
new york
New York
  • Ethnically diverse
  • Active political “factions”
  • Widely settled
    • More accepting of higher “crime” rates
    • Less likely to be active in organizing effective law enforcement
    • Mixture of Dutch and English traditions
new york con t
New York (Con’t)
  • First law enforcement – scout-fiscal (sheriff)
  • No Jail (Primary punishment – whipping)
  • German, French, Irish, English, run a way servants
  • Wide spread contempt for authority – resisting arrest most frequent
new york con t11
New York (Con’t)

Crime factors in New York

Social heterogeneity


Transient Port Cities

Economic swings

Contempt for Public Authority

Presence of British Soldiers

north carolina
North Carolina
  • Similar to New England and New York
  • Sex crimes seemed to have few arrests
  • Most prosecuted offenses were contempt for authority (43% of those charged were indicted – twice as many as any other crime)
  • Violence was a “cultural given”
  • Class distinction on crimes and arrests
    • Wealthy – crimes of violence
    • Poor – property crimes
community response
Community Response
  • Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement seldom worked together
  • By 1830’s some kind of change was deemed necessary
    • Watches, Constables, use of Militia as police were early pragmatic responses
  • Constables – not sought after, fines for refusing – court appointed\
  • Night-watch instituted to supplement day patrol
community response con t
Community Response (Con’t)
  • Boston – 1732 first paid watchmen
  • New York – Rattle watch 1658 - paid Watchmen by 1670
    • Meaningful police reform did not occur until the 1830’
  • Charleston – Constable’s watch in 1685
    • Citizen watches were replaced periodically with military patrol during times of major outbreaks of violence – slave uprisings & invasions
  • Philadelphia – 1700 first constable day watch – 1671 from Dutch to English
  • Richmond – Founded 1737 – first Sheriff and night watch in 1770 – first police department in 1820’s
conclusions early america
ConclusionsEarly America
  • War and revolution brought increase in crime across the colonies
  • Drunkenness, continued unabated
  • No effective law enforcement in place to deal with the crime mostly brought on by severe economic troubles
  • Corruption, poor-quality watchmen and constables
  • Overall disregard for the duty continued to plague law enforcement effectiveness
conclusion con t
Conclusion (Con’t)
  • Criminal courts continued to prove ineffective in dealing with criminals already arrested
  • Ignorance of the law, corruption, inconsistency and basic neglect of duty characterized the courts
  • Spoils system ruled selection of judges
  • Citizens had a distinct revulsion to authority and the rule of law:
    • Sign of rebellion against centralized rule of England
    • Enthusiasm for democratic republicanism