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The Development of Youth Sports in America

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  1. The Development of Youth Sports in America KPE 260 – Winter, 2001 Dr. D. Frankl

  2. Time Frame (1890- 1950) The rise of adult run youth sports programs: • Children have engaged in informal play since the dawn of human history. It wasn't until the 1890s, however, that adults teamed up to direct organized sport programs for boys in America.

  3. Youth Sports • The transformation of "sand lot" attitudes to quasi professional attitudes in youth sports by the adults leading these activities caused many educators, who initially embraced these activities, to renounce their support.

  4. Organized Youth Sports Companies that support the National Alliance for Youth Sport Allstate Insurance BSE Design & Communic. Crown Trophy Gatorade iSignUpNOW.com Kwik Goal Merrill Lynch NFL OddzOn Riddell Sadler Insurance • Since the 1960s, organized youth sports have operated under the patronage of big business, sports foundations and philanthropic organizations, Olympic committees, colleges and various local government and community organized groups (Wiggins, 1987).

  5. Institutional Contributions • Several institutions are noted for their contribution to the organized sports for youth movement: the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), imported to the U.S.A by English protestants, the Boys Clubs and Boy Scouts. By the 1940s, organized youth sports turned very competitive and intense.

  6. A Brief History of the YMCA • The YMCA was founded in London in 1844 by Sir George Williams • By 1851 Great Britain had 2700 members in 24 associations • The first YMCA in the United States was founded in Boston, Massachusetts 1851. • By 1854, 26 associations had been formed in the United States and Canada. Sir George Williams

  7. History of the YMCA • From 1878 to 1916 the scope and variety of YMCA work increased steadily. Buildings with libraries, gymnasiums, swimming pools, auditoriums, and hotel-type rooms were put up by many associations. The YMCA opened summer camps and introduced the idea of overnight camping, set up colleges, and was instrumental in the development of night schools. Associations ran exercise classes, developed body-building techniques, organized college students for social action, and served the special needs of railroad workers and military personnel.

  8. History of the YMCA • The YMCA's rejuvenated interest in organized youth sports took place mainly due to the efforts of one man--Luther Haseley Gulick. Gulick was a strong advocate of the doctrine held by the Muscular Christianity movement and the YMCA. Following the Greek ideal young men were encouraged to develop a sound mind in a sound body. Boston YMCA 1950s

  9. Luther Haseley Gulick • Gulick was responsible for the promotion of a comprehensive graduate program in physical education that comprised of such topics as, history and philosophy, physiological psychology, anthropometry, and literature of physical education (Wiggins, 1987). YMCA Training School Springfield, Mass.

  10. A CHRONOLOGY OF LITTLE LEAGUE AND THE ORGANIZEDCOMPETITIVE SPORTS FOR YOUTH IN AMERICA1 Ë1924--establishment of the Cincinnati Junior Baseball Tournament for boys age 13 or younger Ë1927--Tackle Football was initiated in Denver for boys under 12. Ë1928--Junior Pentathlon organized by the Los Angeles Times • Adapted from Wiggins, D. K. (1987). A history of organized play and highly competitive sport for American children. In D. Gould, M. R. Weiss (Eds.). Advances in pediatric sport sciences. Volume two: Behavioral issues (pp. 1-24). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  11. A CHRONOLOGY OF LITTLE LEAGUE AND THE ORGANIZEDCOMPETITIVE SPORTS FOR YOUTH IN AMERICA Ë1930--establishment of a junior tennis program by the Catholic Youth Organization under the auspices of the Southern California Tennis Association Ë1930--Pop Warner football was started in Philadelphia

  12. A CHRONOLOGY OF LITTLE LEAGUE AND THE ORGANIZEDCOMPETITIVE SPORTS FOR YOUTH IN AMERICA Ë1932--Critique of competitive sports for youth voiced by Elmer D. Mitchell from the University of Michigan. Mitchell argued that highly competitive sports for children were inflicting unduly emotional and physical strain on youngsters. In addition, children were forced to prematurely specialize within the sport and utilize harmful and aggressive behaviors in order to be successful in their sport.

  13. A CHRONOLOGY OF LITTLE LEAGUE AND THE ORGANIZEDCOMPETITIVE SPORTS FOR YOUTH IN AMERICA1 Ë1936 "Stars of Yesterday" baseball program for boys under 15 was initiated by Milwaukee Recreation Department. Ë1939 Carl Stotz founded Little league Baseball in Williamsport, Pennsylvania.

  14. A CHRONOLOGY OF LITTLE LEAGUE AND THE ORGANIZEDCOMPETITIVE SPORTS FOR YOUTH IN AMERICA1 • Ë1947 The American Association for health, Physical Education, and Recreation (AAHPER Atlanta Convention) passed a resolution denouncing exceedingly competitive sports at the elementary school level. In addition, AAHPER passed a second resolution opposing any interscholastic competition for ninth graders or younger children.

  15. A CHRONOLOGY OF LITTLE LEAGUE AND THE ORGANIZEDCOMPETITIVE SPORTS FOR YOUTH IN AMERICA1 1949-- The Joint Committee on Athletic Competition for Children of Elementary and Junior High School Age recommended that highly competitive sports programs for children be abolished.

  16. A CHRONOLOGY OF LITTLE LEAGUE AND THE ORGANIZEDCOMPETITIVE SPORTS FOR YOUTH IN AMERICA Ë1952 -- AAHPER, the National Conference of Program Planning in Games and Sport for Boys of School Age, the National Conference on Physical Education for Children of Elementary School Age, and the National Recreation Congress issued statements against competitive sport programs for children.

  17. A CHRONOLOGY OF LITTLE LEAGUE AND THE ORGANIZEDCOMPETITIVE SPORTS FOR YOUTH IN AMERICA Ë1969 establishment of the National Youth Sports Program (NYSP) for disadvantaged children ages 10-16. Ë1970 Special Olympics organizations in operation in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada.

  18. A CHRONOLOGY OF LITTLE LEAGUE AND THE ORGANIZEDCOMPETITIVE SPORTS FOR YOUTH IN AMERICA Ë1973 Jenny Fuller challenges the national Little Leagues' ban against girls' participation Ë1974 The state of New Jersey's Superior Court ruled on March 29, that a local league chartered by Little League, Inc., was a "place of public accommodation" and therefore not exempt from Federal Legislation against discrimination (Wiggins, 1987, p. 12)

  19. A CHRONOLOGY OF LITTLE LEAGUE AND THE ORGANIZEDCOMPETITIVE SPORTS FOR YOUTH IN AMERICA Ë1976AAHPERD established the National Association for Sport and Physical Education Youth Sports Task Force to examine the current status of children's sport and to offer suggestions concerning youth sport programs (Wiggins, 1987, p. 13)

  20. A CHRONOLOGY OF LITTLE LEAGUE AND THE ORGANIZEDCOMPETITIVE SPORTS FOR YOUTH IN AMERICA Ë1980--Rainer Martens established the American Coaching Effectiveness Program Ë1984--Creation of the Amateur Athletic Foundation, Los Angeles (AAF) • 1 Adapted from Wiggins, D. K. (1987). A history of organized play and highly competitive sport for American children. In D. Gould, M. R. Weiss (Eds.). Advances in pediatric sport sciences. Volume two: Behavioral issues (pp. 1-24). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.