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De-colonization in the Middle East. De-colonization in Palestine De-colonization in Egypt De-colonization in Algeria Terms: Balfour Declaration, Gamal Nasser, Suez Crisis, Pied Noir. Mandates. Colonies under a new name in the Middle East: Syria, Lebanon to France

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de colonization in the middle east
De-colonization in the Middle East
  • De-colonization in Palestine
  • De-colonization in Egypt
  • De-colonization in Algeria

Terms: Balfour Declaration, Gamal Nasser, Suez Crisis, Pied Noir

mandates
Mandates
  • Colonies under a new name in the Middle East:
    • Syria, Lebanon to France
      • Lebanon, Independent 1943
      • Syria, Independent 1945
    • Palestine, Iraq to Great Britain
      • Iraq Independent in 1932 but British troops continued to support non-Iraqui monarch

Leftist coup 1958—ended British rule

i de colonization in palestine
I. De-colonization in Palestine
  • Palestine before Israel
  • Massive Jewish migration between wars
  • British tried to halt migration-failed with Holocaust
  • Britain turned it over to the United Nations in 1947
creation of state of israel
Creation of State of Israel
  • U.N. Declared Partition of Palestine
  • David Ben-Gurion declares statehood, 1948

War ended hostilities

Israel a state in area it occupied

600,000 Palestinians fled or were driven out, creating new population of stateless refugees

de colonization in egypt
De-colonization in Egypt
  • European imperialism in Egypt
  • The Rise of Gamal Nasser – Army overthrows King Farouk and asserts independence
  • The Suez Crisis
    • 1956- Britain withdraws troops
    • Egypt nationalizes waters/canal
    • Provoked - Israel attacks Egypt
    • France and England send ships to protect canal
      • U.S. forces French/British withdrawal
      • Begin of the end for Br. And Fr. Colonial Empires
      • U.S. moving in as interventionist power in Middle East
algeria under the french
Algeria under the French

Algeria under the French from 19th Century

  • Many French migrated to Algeria – largest European settler pop. In N. Africa—the pieds noirs (black boots) – held 1/3 of all land
  • By 1950—80% pieds noirs born in Algeria
  • Algeria not a colony but an integral part of France
  • Algerian elite saw selves as more French than Algerian
algerian war
Algerian War
  • FLN (National Liberation Front) launches movement for independence from French – 1954
  • French dug in, sending 400,000 troops to Algeria
  • Algerian women hiding behind headscarfs planted bombs in European cafes
  • French soldiers savagely tortured Algerian Arabs
    • Brutality of French soldiers led to massive anti-war protests in France
      • Led army to use torture against French citizens in France
algerian war continued
Algerian War Continued
  • Pieds Noirs – determined to keep Algerian French, threatened coups, set off bombs in France and Algeria, and assassinated politicians
  • 1958 army coup brings Charles de Gaulle to power – hope strong leader would keep Algeria
  • De Gaulle negotiates emergency powers and creates strong presidency to deal with crisis
    • Terrorism in France and Algeria escalated

De Gaulle negotiates settlement with Algerian leaders in 1962, making Algeria Independent after 300,000 Algerians and 20,000 Frenchmen killed

Millions of pieds noirs and Algerian supporters flee to France