Classical Period 1750-1825
6 Features of Baroque Music vs. Classical Period Music • 1. terraced dynamics------------gradual changes in dynamics
6 Features of Baroque Music vs. Classical Period Music • 2. unity of mood------------------mood may change throughout a movement
6 Features of Baroque Music vs. Classical Period Music • 3. continuous melody------------melody will change throughout (theme 1 and 2 are different)
6 Features of Baroque Music vs. Classical Period Music • 4. continuous and driving rhythm----rhythms are not predictable or repetitive
6 Features of Baroque Music vs. Classical Period Music • 5. chords and the basso continuo----NO MORE BASSO CONTINUO
6 Features of Baroque Music vs. Classical Period Music • 6. polyphonic texture---------homophonic texture (polyphonic is reserved for development)
Sonata Cycle • Four movement plan common in symphonies, sonatas, and other works of the Classical period - FSDF
Sonata Cycle • Fast - most sophisticated movement - more sections - twists and turns. • Slow - usually a Theme and Variations, or ABA form. Easier to listen to and follow. • Dance-like - triple meter Minuet and Trio form. Even easier to listen to. • Fast - often Rondo - easiest of all to listen to.
Sonata Cycle • Four movement plan common in symphonies, sonatas, and other works of the Classical period - FSDF • Philosophy - Hit the listener with the hardest material first while their brain is still fresh!!!
Sonata-Allegro Form • Also acceptable to call it just Sonata form - See the book on pp 125-131 for a description and diagram
Sonata Allegro Form • - The form (formula) that you will find for the first movement of EVERY work from the Classical Period. Consists of three main parts: Exposition, Development, Recapitulation, and smaller Coda ('tail').
Exposition • First section, where the keys and themes are “exposed” for the listener. Theme 1 in home key, transition modulates, Theme 2 in new key, closing section. The exposition is played twice.
Development • The second section. Themes 1 and 2 are fragmented and made into motives. Constant modulation with NO occurrence of the home key. Lots of tension, and even polyphonic texture. At the end of nearly every development, you can sense that it?s "running out of steam".
Recapitulation • The third section. You hear the home key coincide with Theme 1 again. Your ear remembers this sound from the very beginning. Structurally, the recapitulation is like the exposition, except that there is NOMODULATION IN THE RECAPITULATION. Theme 2 is in the home key.
Coda • "tail"; the very end of a movement. Nothing new, just a nice big cadence to signify that THIS IS THE END.
Symphony • A Multi-movement work for orchestra. Usually, the work is in 4 movements and follows the standard “Sonata cycle” Fast-Slow-Dancelike-Fast plan.
Chamber music • Ensemble music where there is only one person per part. Designed to be performed in an intimate setting (a person’s home, for instance). • The string quartet is the most prominent type of chamber music ensemble in the Classical Period.
String Quartet • (2 meanings) – • 1. 4 string instruments, 2 violins (each playing a separate part), viola, and violoncello (cello).
String Quartet • 2. The name of the work that a string quartet plays is called a string quartet.
String Quartet Form • Haydn set out the main form for the String Quartet. • 1st movement: Sonata Form, Allegro and in the Home key, • 2nd movement: Slow, in a related (but not the Home) key, • 3rd movement: Minuet and Trio, in the Home key, • 4th movement: Sonata-Rondo form, in the Home Key.
Rondo Form • A is the main theme • All contrasting themes are given a letter • A comes back “around” • Diagram looks like: • ABACABADA etc. • Form of Haydn’s Trumpet Concerto
Haydn Concerto Rondo Form • 43 0:00 A - violins • 0:21 B - violins (contrasting theme) • A - trumpet enters • B1 - trumpet and violins alternate • 1:23 C - violins and trumpet (another contrast) • A - trumpet • A1 - trumpet / orchestra ‘development’ • A - trumpet • B - trumpet and violins • A - trumpet (portion) • C - violins and trumpet • Coda: A
Opera • A large-scale, multi-movement work for vocal soloists, chorus, and orchestra. It is secular (not religious), acted out on stage with scenery and costumes, performed in a theater, and sung in Italian.
2 Types of Singing • Aria - the singing style in operatic works that is a "song". Action stops and characters reflect on emotion that has just occurred. • Recitative - the singing style in operatic works that is the dialog/action. This type of singing is not usually very tuneful.
Libretto - the words of an opera exactly as they are set to music. The libretto is NOT a plot summary, but the lyrics of the opera (like a script to a play or movie). Literally, it means "Little book".
W.A. Mozart • 1756-1791 • Composed first pieces at age 5 • First symphony at age 8. • First opera at age 12.
Mozart’s operas • Why are they considered to be the best? • 1. Excellent plots • 2. Excellent music • 3. Ability to capture the emotions of the characters in the music.
Don Giovanni • Libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte.