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    1. Classical Period Persia, India, China, and the Mediterranean Basin

    2. Persians and Medes Indo-Europeans

    3. Early Religion of nomadic Persian tribes Early Indo-Europeans influence Similar to Vedic with ritual of fire sacrifice Sun, Wind, Fire, and Soma (haoma) Emphasized this world- health and wealth.

    4. New religion emerges Corresponds with development of complex society.

    5. Zarathustra Have no exact time frame for him. Around 600-500 centuries BCE Left his home and sought the truth. Had a series of vision. Teachings were transmitted orally by priests called magi.

    6. Central Aspects Duelism: Struggle between forces of good and evil Ahuru Mazda: Supreme God, benevolent Angra Mainya: Evil Force Lesser deities Judgment day, heaven and hell. Did not call for renunciation, but morality. Avesta: teachings Creation myth

    7. Persian Empire Stretched from the Indus River (now in Pakistan to Egypt Much larger than Babylonian or Assyrian Empire Heartland was located what is now called Iran.

    8. Dynastic Rulers of the Persian Empire Achaemenid (558-330 BCE) Seleucid (323-283 BCE) Parthians (247BCE-224 CE) Sasanids (224-651 CE)

    9. Achaemenid (558-330 BCE) Cyrus (r.558-530 BCE Cambyses (r.530-521) Darius (r.521-486 BCE) Xerxes (486-465 BCE)

    10. Cyrus (r.558-530 BCE Became king of Persian tribes Defeated the Medes (Iran) Defeated kingdom of Lydia (Turkey) Extended control into Bactria (Afghanistan) and Central Asia Defeated Babylon

    11. Babylon Conquered the capital of the Babylonian Empire on Oct. 4, 539 BCE. Babylonian subjects celebrated the coming of Cyrus. They suffered under the rule of Nabonius who oppressed the people and interfered with religious practices.

    12. Customary wartime practices Slaughter or enslave population Loot and destroy city Destroy temples

    13. Liberation of Babylon Did not slaughter population Engaged in construction projects Kept the peace Freed all people who had been enslaved by the Babylonians

    14. Cyrus Inscription Cylinder Artifact found in Babylon in 1879 Now in British Museum in London Pottery cylinder with inscriptions of the proclamation Cyrus made when he conquered Babylon in 539 BCE.

    15. First Human Rights Document I Cyrus. . .when I entered Babylon as a friend and established the seat of government in the place of the ruler. . . I did not allow anybody to terrorize (any of the people) of the country. I strove for peace in Babylon. . .I brought relief to their dilapidated housing, putting an end to their complaints.

    16. Cyrus Frees Jews Jews allowed to return to Palestine Cyrus mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures (Christian Old Testament)

    17. Book of Ezra Tells of a proclamation made by Cyrus king of Persia when he captured Babylon. Cyrus returned Jews to their homeland. Gave them a grant to rebuild the destroyed temple in Jerusalem.

    18. Isaiah 44:24 - 45:1. God of Israel blesses Cyrus, even though Cyrus does not worship him. 44:28: Thus saith of Cyrus, He is my shepherd. . . Thus saith the Lord to his anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him.

    19. Other Biblical accounts of Persian kings Darius Ezra 6 Xerxes (Artaxerxes) Ezra 7 and 8

    20. Cambyses (r.530-521BCE ) Conquered Egypt in 525 BCE.

    21. Darius (521-486 BCE) Established an impressive administration of the extensive and diverse empire. Professed faith in Ahuramazda- Whoever worships Ahuramazda, shall receive happiness in life and after death. Promotes worship of Ahuramazda, but does not pressure others to change gods. Bowed before the Egyptian gods as a sign of respect for their culture and religion.

    22. Balanced central authority with local administration Appointed governors (satraps) to serve as agents of the central administration and oversee affairs of the regions. Divided kingdoms in 23 satrapies Did not try to push direct rule Recruited local officials to fill almost all positions below the level of the satrap. Satraps (governors) kept in check by military officers and tax collectors. Appointed imperial spies who had their own troops and who conducted surprise visits to check accounting and administrations of the satrapies.

    23. Legal system. Had legal experts to study and codify laws of his subject people, modifying them when necessary to harmonize them with the legal principles observed in the empire as a whole. Concepts of law and justice administered by trained officials linked people across the empire.

    24. Highways Built roads across the empire, including Persian Royal Road Roads facilitated trade throughout empire.

    25. Postal service Organized a courier service Built 111 postal stations, each with a fresh supply of horses Persian imperial servants were impressive enough for Herodotus to write Neither snow, nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds.

    26. Persian Wars (500-479 BCE) Ethnic Greeks in Anatolia (Turkey) rebelled. 490 BCE Darius set out to capture Greek cities. Stopped at Marathon

    27. Xerxes (486-465 BCE) Intolerant Resented by subjects Also tried to capture Greek cities but failed.

    28. End of Achaemenid Dynasty Conquered by Alexander the Great in 334 BCE. Alexander paid his respects at the tomb of Cyrus at Pasargadae Persepolis burned.

    29. Seleucid (323-283 BCE) Greek period of dominance Named after commander in Alexanders army, who took control of Achaemenid empire after Alexanders death. Gradually lost parts of empire.

    30. Parthians Originally a nomadic people from Central Asia. Settled in eastern Iran. Gained power during Greek period, eventually taking control of the empire.

    31. Parthian Government Not as centralized government as Aechaemenid and Seleucids Based on tribal pattern Tribal leaders shared authority

    32. Sasanids Persians Claimed descent from Achaemenids Took control over Parthians in 224 CE Ended in 651 CE when conquered by Arabs

    34. Parthians (247BCE-224 CE)

    35. Sasanids (224-651 CE)

    36. Early Religion of nomadic Persian tribes Early Indo-Europeans influence Similar to Vedic with ritual of fire sacrifice Sun, Wind, Fire, and Soma (haoma) Emphasized this world- health and wealth.

    37. New religion emerges Corresponds with development of complex society.

    38. Zarathustra Have no exact time frame for him. Around 600-500 centuries BCE Left his home and sought the truth. Had a series of vision. Teachings were transmitted orally by priests called magi.

    39. Central Aspects Duelism: Struggle between forces of good and evil Ahuru Mazda: Supreme God, benevolent Angra Mainya: Evil Force Lesser deities Judgment day, heaven and hell. Did not call for renunciation, but morality. Avesta: teachings Creation myth