Classical Period • (Neo-Classical or Enlightenment Era) 18th century- 19th century • 1750-1825
Classical Style • “Neo” means new • Also known as the age of reason • Returned to ideas of ancient Greece & Rome • Strict rules, pure uncomplicated • Embraces the music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven
Classical Music • 2 important new kinds of music • 1. Sonata-written in 3-4 movements (sections) for 1- 2 instruments • 2. Symphony-large piece written in 3-4 movements for an orchestra • 2 great composers of the time • 1. Franz Joseph Haydn • 2. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart • Austrian born child prodigy (Unusual, extraordinary, a marvel having unusual skills at something at an early age) • Was giving large scale performances by the age of 6 • Known as 1 of the greatest composers of all time • Composed 1st symphony at age 8 • Composed very quickly • He spread his reputation by publishing things, playing the piano and having one of his operas performed in 1782 • Died a very poor man at the age of 35 • Buried in Vienna, small ceremony & unmarked grave • Composed The Magic Flute the year he died
Orchestra • Orchestra-group of musicians Today’s orchestra established during this time • Only had about 30-40 players, today 100+ • Size of orchestra depended on size of the salon (small parlor) & wealth of the people attending • Large concert halls didn’t exist. As they were built larger & larger, more instruments added to each instrument group • Sections of first Orchestra • String Choir-violins, violas, cellos, & bass • 6 Woodwind players-2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons • 4 Brass players-2 horns, 2 trumpets • Percussions section-1 pair kettle drums
Franz Joseph Haydn • Poor family, he was the son of a wheelwright. • He trained as a choirboy at age 8 • Later lived in a palace for 30 years & paid to write as much music as possible • At age 60 was invited to go to London to compose symphonies & conduct public concerts • Played the harpsichord (piano-like instrument) • Grouped the instruments of the orchestra • Known as the father of symphony, composed 100+ • Nickname “Papa” Haydn • He died in 1809 at the age if 77
Ludwig von Beethoven • Born on December 16, 1770 in Bonn • His first public concert was on March 26, 1778, at age 7 • Became deaf in early 20s. • Considered rude & temperamental by many • Never heard his most famous symphony, 9th Symphony • Died exactly 49 years later on the same day as his first concert. • When he died it is said that 10,000 people attended his funeral.
Classical Dance • The Romonov family in Russia wanted to westernize their court so they invited artists in western Europe to perform in Russia
Jean George Noverre • Was a choreographer who saw the need to reform in ballet.
Marius Petipa • Ballet dancer who danced at the Imperial Theatre & became chief ballet master • Choreographed Don Quixote, La Bayadere, The Sleeping Beauty, the Nutcracker and Swan Lake.
Classical Theatre • Drama very important to aristocratic court • Melodrama means “music drama” • Time of French & American Revolution, philosophy & politics important • Called the “good old days” of literature
Moliere (Jean Baptiste Poquelin) • French playwright & actor • Worked for King Louis XIV • Master of Satire (makes fun of humanity) • His death caused superstition thru even modern theatre (He was wearing yellow when he died & is still supposedly bad luck to wear yellow)
Neo-Classical Art • Focused on the natural and belief n superiority of rational thought over emotion. • Public buildings based on the ideals of perfection of humanity.
Jacques-Louis David • Napoleon Crossing the St. Bernard Pass, c.1801 • French artist • Considered the hero of neo-classical art due to serious artworks that represents the ideals of that period. • Official artist of French Revolution • Painted leaders of the war & created costumes for them • Death was a result of being ran over by a carriage
Thomas Jefferson • Thomas Jefferson was3rd president, principal author of Declaration of Independence, architect, agriculturalist, etymologist, horticulturist, archaeologist, cryptographer, surveyor, paleontologist, lawyer, inventor, violinist, mathematician, author, & founder of U. of Virginia. • Designed his home, Monticello, including automatic doors & the first swivel chair
Neo-Classical Art • Giovanni Paolo Pannini • The Colosseum and the Arch of Constantine
Neo-Classical Architecture Rebelled against ornate Baroque style
Classic Greek Architecture 600 B.C. Temple of Hephaestus Parthenon at Acropolis