Health Care Pathways: Connecting Education with Careers Friday April 11, 2008. Biotech’s GREEN EGGS & HAM. Coming SOON to a supermarket . pharmacy near you!. Gloria Vachino, MS CityLab Academy Instructor, Biomedical Laboratory and Clinical Sciences Boston University School of Medicine.
Connecting Education with Careers
Friday April 11, 2008
Biotech’sGREEN EGGS & HAM
Coming SOON to a supermarket
pharmacy near you!
Gloria Vachino, MS
Instructor, Biomedical Laboratory and Clinical SciencesBoston University School of Medicine
Introduction to Biotechnology
- explanation of how biotech industry emerged and introduction to core science of biotechnology
-applications of biotechnology/ significance of green eggs and ham
Bringing Biotech into the Classroom
-types of resources
-approaches to building a foundation
Career Paths in Biotech
-educational requirements for jobs in biotech
-types of jobs
How did the Biotechnology industry get started?
Biotech industry emerged in 1970’s around the discovery of methods that allowed human genes to be transferred (“cut and pasted”) into bacteria.
First commercial application of gene transfer:
▪ Human gene for insulin was transferred into bacterial cells.
▪ Bacteria containing the human insulin gene manufactured human insulin.
▪ Process of fermentation allowed large quantities of human insulin to be produced for the first time ever.
What is a gene?
How is it possible for bacteria to manufacture human proteins?
Genes are made of DNA.
DNA is constructed of 4 types of building blocks (nucleotides), which are the same across species.
Genes provide instructions- in DNA language- on how to make proteins. The vast majority of species use the same genetic code to interpret these instructions.
The genetic code specifies which sequence of nucleotides corresponds to a particular amino acid. (Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins).
Thus, bacterial cells carrying the human gene for insulin:
-have the instructions for making human insulin
-can manufacture insulin because they use the
same genetic code as human cells
Biotech Industry’s Production of Human Insulin by Bacteria
Recombinant DNA Technology (Genetic Engineering)
1) Human gene for insulin is merged with DNA from bacteria.
2) “Hybrid” DNA (referred to as recombinant DNA) is transferred to bacterial cell.
Human gene for insulin
3) Bacteria multiply
http://www.littletree.com.au/dna.htm, http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/inserting.html, http://www.iptv.org/exploremore/ge/what/insulin.cfm,
Is Recombinant DNA Technology Still Used Today in the Biotech Industry?
Please note that other technologies also allow copying of DNA ; e.g. PCR
The transfer of genes into cells is a hit-or-miss process. The ability to easily identify which cells have successfully taken up a gene of interest is extremely important.
A popular method of tracking transferred genes relies on Aequorea victoria, a jellyfish that carries the gene for GFP (green fluorescent protein).
When a gene of interest is linked to the GFP gene, cells that take up the linked genes glow green under blue light.
Thus, GFP provides a “visual report” on the location of the gene of interest.
Example of how the GFP method benefits gene transfer processes:
When creating transgenic animals, the GFP method makes it possible to determine which cells and tissues carry a gene of interest.
Biotech’s Green Eggs and Ham
Applications of transgenic animals:
producers of recombinant protein drugs
(e.g. chicken eggs, dairy animals)
source of organs for transplantation
source of vaccines (e.g. chicken eggs)
▪ written materials for middle school and high school levels
▪ images and animations
▪ exercises with paper & scissor models
▪ simple lab experiments for classroom
The Secret of Lifehttp://www.pbs.org/wnet/dna/episode1/#
Cracking the Code of Life http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/genome/
▪ Biotechnology: Science for the New Millennium, Ellyn Dougherty, EMC Paradigm Publications 2007 http://www.skipwagner.net/smbiotech/bioteched.htm
▪ Shoestring Biotechnology: Budget-Oriented High Quality Biotechnology Laboratories for Two-Year College and High School,National Association of Biology Teachershttp://www.biotechinstitute.org/resources/index.html
▪ educational companies / lab supply companies http://www.carolina.com/
Websites listed in “Building a Foundation” slide below
Hands-on lab workshops and other supplementary resources
CityLab Boston University www.bumc.bu.edu/citylab
▪ conducts hands-on lab workshops for middle and high school students
▪ in partnership with MBC (Massachusetts Biotechnology Council):
- staffs MobileLab that travels to schools state-wide
- conducts BioTeach program to train teachers
Massachusetts Biotechnology Council (MBC) www.massbio.org
▪ awards funds to help schools incorporate biotechnology into curriculum http://massbio.org/massbioed/community_labawards.php?bc=labawards
▪ provides information on biotech careers, salaries and educational requirements: http://massbio.org/directory/careers/descriptions_qa.html
▪ lists publications on biotech for K-12 http://massbio.org/directory/resources/publications.html
Building a Foundation
I) FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE OFBIOTECHNOLOGY
Cells, Genes and DNA
▪ cell structure and function/ eukaryotes vs. prokaryotes
▪ relationship between chromosomes, genes and DNA and proteins
DNA Structure / Function
▪ structure of nucleotides, DNA’s “building blocks”
▪ how 2 chains of DNA’s double helix bind to each other
▪ role of genes / gene expression
▪ DNA sequence / The Human Genome Project
▪ protein synthesis / RNA / the genetic code
the above websites range from written information to paper/scissor exercises and simple lab experiments. Many emphasize inquiry-based learning.
Career/ Education Options in Biomedical Science / Biotechnology for High School Graduates
Aseptic Fill Technician
Quality Control (QC) Technician
Quality Assurance (QA) Documentation Coordinator/Associate
Aseptic Fill Technician
Quality Control (QC) Analyst
Please note the overlap in credentials needed for some jobs. Many variables influence an employer’s decision to hire individuals who do not meet minimal educational requirements. For a complete list of jobs and job descriptions, visit: http://massbio.org/directory/careers/descriptions_ops.html#16,