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Health Care Pathways: Connecting Education with Careers Friday April 11, 2008. Biotech’s GREEN EGGS & HAM. Coming SOON to a supermarket . pharmacy near you!. Gloria Vachino, MS CityLab Academy Instructor, Biomedical Laboratory and Clinical Sciences Boston University School of Medicine.

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slide1

Health Care Pathways:

Connecting Education with Careers

Friday April 11, 2008

Biotech’sGREEN EGGS & HAM

Coming SOON to a supermarket

pharmacy near you!

Gloria Vachino, MS

CityLab Academy

Instructor, Biomedical Laboratory and Clinical SciencesBoston University School of Medicine

slide2

SUMMARY

Introduction to Biotechnology

- explanation of how biotech industry emerged and introduction to core science of biotechnology

-applications of biotechnology/ significance of green eggs and ham

Bringing Biotech into the Classroom

-types of resources

-approaches to building a foundation

Career Paths in Biotech

-educational requirements for jobs in biotech

-types of jobs

slide3

INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECH

How did the Biotechnology industry get started?

Biotech industry emerged in 1970’s around the discovery of methods that allowed human genes to be transferred (“cut and pasted”) into bacteria.

First commercial application of gene transfer:

▪ Human gene for insulin was transferred into bacterial cells.

▪ Bacteria containing the human insulin gene manufactured human insulin.

▪ Process of fermentation allowed large quantities of human insulin to be produced for the first time ever.

slide4

X

X

X

HUMAN CELL

X

X

What is a gene?

www.nia.nih.gov

slide5

publications.nigms.nih.gov

How is it possible for bacteria to manufacture human proteins?

Genes are made of DNA.

DNA is constructed of 4 types of building blocks (nucleotides), which are the same across species.

Genes provide instructions- in DNA language- on how to make proteins. The vast majority of species use the same genetic code to interpret these instructions.

The genetic code specifies which sequence of nucleotides corresponds to a particular amino acid. (Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins).

Thus, bacterial cells carrying the human gene for insulin:

-have the instructions for making human insulin

-can manufacture insulin because they use the

same genetic code as human cells

slide6

4) Bacterial cells produce recombinant human insulin.

Biotech Industry’s Production of Human Insulin by Bacteria

Recombinant DNA Technology (Genetic Engineering)

  • Recombinant DNA technology permits:
  • gene cloning (making multiple copies of a gene) and
  • production of the protein encoded by the gene

1) Human gene for insulin is merged with DNA from bacteria.

2) “Hybrid” DNA (referred to as recombinant DNA) is transferred to bacterial cell.

+

Human gene for insulin

bacterial

DNA

Bacterial cell

3) Bacteria multiply

http://www.littletree.com.au/dna.htm, http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/inserting.html, http://www.iptv.org/exploremore/ge/what/insulin.cfm,

http://www.ctbiobus.org/curriculum/pdfs/lightingthemagiclantern_04.pdf

slide7

Is Recombinant DNA Technology Still Used Today in the Biotech Industry?

  • Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology:
  • production of genetically engineered / recombinant protein drugs
  • Examples: interferon, blood clotting proteins, growth hormones
  • EPO, Avastin, Xolair, Remicade, Humulin (insulin)
  • genetically engineered animals (referred to as transgenic animals) for drugs, food and as models of human diseases
  •  gene therapy
  •  vaccines (e.g. hepatitis B)
  •  genetically engineered plants (referred to as transgenic plants)
  • Recombinant DNA technology is also used to make multiple copies of genes for:
  •  DNA fingerprinting
          •  DNA sequencing
        • -Human Genome Project
        • - identify genes involved in disease processes
        • - study evolutionary trends

YES!

Please note that other technologies also allow copying of DNA ; e.g. PCR

slide8

…..and the Green Eggs and Ham?

The transfer of genes into cells is a hit-or-miss process. The ability to easily identify which cells have successfully taken up a gene of interest is extremely important.

A popular method of tracking transferred genes relies on Aequorea victoria, a jellyfish that carries the gene for GFP (green fluorescent protein).

When a gene of interest is linked to the GFP gene, cells that take up the linked genes glow green under blue light.

http://userpages.umbc.edu/~jili/ench772/index.html

Thus, GFP provides a “visual report” on the location of the gene of interest.

Example of how the GFP method benefits gene transfer processes:

When creating transgenic animals, the GFP method makes it possible to determine which cells and tissues carry a gene of interest.

 

slide9

http://www.boston.com/news/world/asia/articles/2008/01/10/these_little_piggies_were_born_green/?rss_id=Boston+Globe+--+Today's+paper+A+to+Zhttp://www.boston.com/news/world/asia/articles/2008/01/10/these_little_piggies_were_born_green/?rss_id=Boston+Globe+--+Today's+paper+A+to+Z

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://quad.bic.caltech.edu/~fraserlab/people/lansford/research/images/GFP%2520retro%2520embryo%25206in%2520copy.jpg&imgrefurl=http://quad.bic.caltech.edu/~fraserlab/people/lansford/research/research.html&h=527&w=900&sz=74&hl=en&start=25&tbnid=kzGf_jZkuAiDoM:&tbnh=85&tbnw=146&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgfp%2Bin%2Bchicken%2Bembryo%26start%3D20%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4605202.stm

Biotech’s Green Eggs and Ham

Applications of transgenic animals:

producers of recombinant protein drugs

(e.g. chicken eggs, dairy animals)

source of organs for transplantation

(e.g. pigs)

 source of vaccines (e.g. chicken eggs)

http://www.scq.ubc.ca/the-new-macdonald-pharm/

bringing biotech into the classroom resources
BRINGING BIOTECH INTO THE CLASSROOMResources

Online

▪ written materials for middle school and high school levels

▪ images and animations

▪ exercises with paper & scissor models

▪ simple lab experiments for classroom

Online documentaries

The Secret of Lifehttp://www.pbs.org/wnet/dna/episode1/#

Cracking the Code of Life http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/genome/

Books

▪ Biotechnology: Science for the New Millennium, Ellyn Dougherty, EMC Paradigm Publications 2007 http://www.skipwagner.net/smbiotech/bioteched.htm

▪ Shoestring Biotechnology: Budget-Oriented High Quality Biotechnology Laboratories for Two-Year College and High School,National Association of Biology Teachershttp://www.biotechinstitute.org/resources/index.html

Kits

▪ educational companies / lab supply companies http://www.carolina.com/

 

Websites listed in “Building a Foundation” slide below

slide11

Resources (continued)

Hands-on lab workshops and other supplementary resources

CityLab Boston University www.bumc.bu.edu/citylab

▪ conducts hands-on lab workshops for middle and high school students

▪ in partnership with MBC (Massachusetts Biotechnology Council):

- staffs MobileLab that travels to schools state-wide

- conducts BioTeach program to train teachers

Massachusetts Biotechnology Council (MBC) www.massbio.org

▪ awards funds to help schools incorporate biotechnology into curriculum http://massbio.org/massbioed/community_labawards.php?bc=labawards

▪ provides information on biotech careers, salaries and educational requirements: http://massbio.org/directory/careers/descriptions_qa.html

▪ lists publications on biotech for K-12 http://massbio.org/directory/resources/publications.html

PBS http://www.pbs.org/teachers/search

slide12

BRINGING BIOTECH INTO THE CLASSROOM

Building a Foundation

I) FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE OFBIOTECHNOLOGY

Cells, Genes and DNA

▪ cell structure and function/ eukaryotes vs. prokaryotes

▪ relationship between chromosomes, genes and DNA and proteins

http://www.cellsalive.com/toc.htm

DNA Structure / Function

▪ structure of nucleotides, DNA’s “building blocks”

▪ how 2 chains of DNA’s double helix bind to each other

▪ role of genes / gene expression

▪ DNA sequence / The Human Genome Project

▪ protein synthesis / RNA / the genetic code

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/teachers/regaction.cfm

http://www.nigms.nih.gov/Publications/FactSheet_Genes.htm

http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BA/dnaintro/index.html

http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/WYW/wkbooks/SFTS/activity6.html

http://faculty.etsu.edu/MILLERH/Workshop/DNA%20structure.htm

http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/sci_edu/waldron/#trans

http://www.genomicseducation.ca/educationResources/grade_12/biological_molecules.asp

the above websites range from written information to paper/scissor exercises and simple lab experiments. Many emphasize inquiry-based learning.

slide13

Building a Foundation (continued)

  • II) CONCEPT OF USING DNA AS A “TOOL” IN BIOTECH
  • ▪ assist students with investigating how knowledge of DNA structure and
  • function has allowed DNA to be used as a tool.
  • http://www.biotechinstitute.org/what_is/
  • http://www.dna.gov/dna_resources/generalresources
  • http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BC/Speaking_Language_rDNA.html
  • http://www.bio-rad.com/cmc_upload/Literature/54133/4110034B.pdf & http://www.ejbiotechnology.info/content/vol5/issue3/teaching/01/index.html
      • (text and simple lab exercises that can be tailored to grade level)
  • ▪ have students explore the uses of DNA in biotechnology
  • Medicine: recombinant protein drugs, diagnostic tests, genome sequencing
  • http://www.dna.gov/dna_resources/generalresources
  • http://biobasics.gc.ca/english/View.asp?x=782#drugs
  • http://www.koshlandscience.org/exhibitdna/inf03.jsp#
  • Agriculture: a) transgenic plants that withstand pests, disease, drought http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/harvest/exist/
  • b) transgenic animals with desirable traits http://www.actionbioscience.org/biotech/margawati.html
  • Forensics:http://www.koshlandscience.org/exhibitdna/crim01.jsp
  • Biofuels:http://genomicsgtl.energy.gov/education/index.shtml
slide14

Building a Foundation (continued)

  • Also important in preparing students for careers in biotechnology (and other applied sciences) is teaching them how to:
    • ▪ collect data
    • ▪ write lab reports
    • ▪ maintain lab notebooks
    • ▪ draw and interpret graphs (by hand using graph paper and using
    • computer software e.g. Excel)
    • ▪ do basic math without a calculator!
    • ▪ tackle word problems
    • ▪ apply the scientific method
slide15

Career/ Education Options in Biomedical Science / Biotechnology for High School Graduates

EDUCATION

Associate’sDegree

Certificate

Bachelor’s Degree

JOBS

Lab Assistant

Manufacturing Technician/Associate

Aseptic Fill Technician

Quality Control (QC) Technician

Quality Assurance (QA) Documentation Coordinator/Associate

Lab Technician

Research Assistant

Aseptic Fill Technician

Quality Control (QC) Analyst

Environmental Technician

Glasswasher

Shipper/Receiver

Please note the overlap in credentials needed for some jobs. Many variables influence an employer’s decision to hire individuals who do not meet minimal educational requirements. For a complete list of jobs and job descriptions, visit: http://massbio.org/directory/careers/descriptions_ops.html#16,

http://massbio.org/directory/careers/overview_s.html,http://www.careervoyages.gov/biotechnology-main.cfm