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Connecting Classroom Walkthrough to High Yield Strategies. Orange County Public Schools. Classroom Walkthrough Key Points. What is Classroom Walkthrough? A focused version of “Management By Wandering Around”

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classroom walkthrough key points
Classroom Walkthrough Key Points
  • What is Classroom Walkthrough?
  • A focused version of “Management By Wandering Around”
  • Support for administrators in their roles as instructional leaders, mentors, and coaches
  • A method for collecting data to detect trends and patterns in teaching and learning
  • A means of providing individual, small group, and school-wide reflection
  • NOT a form of evaluation!
classroom walkthrough key points4
Classroom Walkthrough Key Points
  • What kind of data is collected?
  • Teaching Objective (Is the lesson’s objective evident?)
  • Target (Does the lesson match a grade level standard?)
  • Taxonomy (What level of Bloom’s Taxonomy are the questions?)
  • Text & Materials (Do the text and materials being used match the grade level? Are they appropriate and engaging?)
classroom walkthrough key points5
Classroom Walkthrough Key Points
  • What kind of data is collected?
  • Identification of Instructional Strategies (Is there evidence of Marzano’s nine High Yield Strategies? What other strategies are being used?)
  • Assessment of Learner Engagement (Are students engaged, compliant, retreating, or rebellious?)
  • Survey of the Learning Environment (Does the learning environment support the lesson objective?)
classroom walkthrough cwt and high yield strategies hys
Classroom Walkthrough (CWT) and High Yield Strategies (HYS)
  • Informal data was collected during the 2005-2006 school year when principals were trained in CWT
  • Data highlighted areas of need: Bloom’s Taxonomy and Instructional Strategies
  • Marzano’s nine identified High Yield Strategies will help schools improve
slide7

School-Based Professional Development plans need to address teachers’ understanding of HYS and ability to use HYS appropriately and with fidelity.

slide8

School

Teacher

Student

Factors Influencing Achievement

What Works In Schools by Robert Marzano

1. Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum 2. Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback 3. Parent and Community Involvement 4. Safe and Orderly Environment 5. Collegiality and Professionalism

6. Instructional Strategies

7. Classroom Management

8. Classroom Curriculum Design

9. Home Environment

10. Learned Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

11. Motivation

slide10

Instructional Strategies

Teacher

Factors Influencing Achievement

6. Instructional Strategies

7. Classroom Management

8. Classroom Curriculum Design

at your table rank these instructional strategies according to their impact on student achievement
At your table rank these instructional strategies according to their impact on student achievement:
  • Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Summarizing and Note Taking
  • Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
  • Homework and Practice
  • Nonlinguistic Representations
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
  • Generating and Testing Hypotheses
  • Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
high yield strategies
High Yield Strategies

All nine strategies have a STRONG effect on student achievement! They are all important and greatly influence the level of student achievement in your classroom - when used in the appropriate content and situation!

Here are the High Yield Strategy in ranking order…

slide13

Works

Classroom Instruction That

Percentile Gain

45

34

29

28

27

  • Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Summarizing and Note Taking
  • Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
  • Homework and Practice
  • Nonlinguistic Representations
slide14

Works

Classroom Instruction That

  • Cooperative Learning
  • Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
  • Generating and Testing Hypotheses
  • Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers

Percentile Gain

27

23

25

22

high yield strategies15
High-Yield Strategies
  • Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Summarizing and Note Taking
  • Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
  • Homework and Practice
  • Nonlinguistic Representations
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
  • Generating and Testing Hypotheses
  • Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers

Not a Checklist

slide18

Comparing

Classifying

Analogy

Metaphor

: :

?

similarities and differences
Similarities and Differences

A and B are similar because they both

___________________

___________________

___________________

A and B are different because

A is ___________, but B is _____________

A is ___________, but B is _____________

A is ___________, but B is _____________

identifying similarities and differences20
Identifying Similarities and Differences

Generalizations from research on Identifying Similarities and Differences:

  • Presenting students with explicit guidance in identifying similarities and differences enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge
  • Having students independently identify similarities and differences enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge
identifying similarities and differences21
Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Representing similarities and differences in graphic and symbolic form further enhances students’ understanding of and ability to us knowledge.
  • Identification of similarities and differences can be accomplished in a variety of ways.
slide23
When students know what they are learning, their performance, on average, has been shown to be

27 percentile points higher

than students who do not know what they are learning.

learning objectives
Learning Objectives

When did he say this was due?

The Objective is…

activities assignments
Today

Read Chapter 2 in…

Finish Adverb

Assignment…

Work on myth…

As a result of what we do today, you will be able to demonstrate that you:

Understand the technique of foreshadowing in mysteries.

Can revise writing to improve use of descriptive adverbs.

Activities/Assignments

Learning Goals

setting objectives
Setting Objectives

Generalizations from research on Setting Objectives (Goal Setting):

  • Instructional goals narrow student focus
  • Instructional goals should not be too specific
  • Students should be encouraged to personalize the teacher’s goals.
setting objectives and providing feedback27
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback

When students know what they are learning, their performance, on average, has been shown to be

27 percentile points higher

than students who do not know what they are learning.

If, in addition, they are provided feedback and the opportunity to improve, the advantage can be as high as

37 percentile points.

providing feedback
Providing Feedback

Generalizations from Research on Providing Feedback:

  • Feedback should be “corrective” in nature
  • Feedback should be timely
  • Feedback should be specific to a criterion
  • Students can effectively provide their own feedback
john hattie reviewed 7 827 studies on learning and instruction
John Hattie—reviewed 7,827 studies on learning and instruction

Conclusion…

“The most powerful single innovation that enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest prescription for improving education must be ‘dollops’ of feedback.”

how do you provide feedback in a way that students
How do you provide feedback in a way that students:
  • Know what they are learning and how well they are progressing
  • Can explain what they need to do to get better

RUBRICS

rubrics
Rubrics
  • What is the focus of the criteria?
    • If criteria focus on the appearance of the product, the student will be more likely to attend to the appearance.
    • If criteria focus on thelevel of learning, the student will be more likely to attend to the level of learning.
rubric clean refrigerator
Rubric – CLEAN REFRIGERATOR

4 – Entire refrigerator is sparkling and smells clean. All items are fresh, in proper containers (original or Tupperware, with lids), and organized into categories.

3 – Refrigerator is generally wiped clean. All items are relatively fresh in some type of container (some Tupperware lids are missing or don’t fit) and are sitting upright.

rubric clean refrigerator34
Rubric – CLEAN REFRIGERATOR

2 – Some of the shelves are wiped clean, although there are some crusty spots. There are some suspicious smells. Items are in containers but there appears to be some green stuff growing in some of the Tupperware.

1 – Items stick to the shelves when they are picked up. The smells linger long after the refrigerator door is closed. Several items need to be thrown out, Tupperware and all!

homework and practice36
Homework and Practice

Generalizations from Research on Homework:

  • The amount of homework assigned to students should be different from elementary to high school.
  • Parent involvement in homework should be kept to a minimum.
  • The purpose of homework should be identified and articulated.
  • If homework is assigned, it should be commented on.
slide37
1. The amount of homework assigned to students should be different from elementary to middle school to high school.
  • Critical Question – What is the right amount of homework?
    • There is no clear answer, but a general rule can be:

The Grade Level x 10 Minutes

2 parent involvement in homework should be kept to a minimum
2. Parent involvement in homework should be kept to a minimum.

“While it is certainly legitimate to inform parents of the homework assigned to their children, it does not seem advisable to have parents help their children with homework.”

“Specifically, many studies show minimal and even negative effects when parents are asked to help students with homework.”

3 the purpose of homework should be identified and articulated
3. The purpose of homework should be identified and articulated.

Appropriate purposes of homework:

Skill and Processes

Practice to increase accuracy, fluency, and, if appropriate, speed

Information and Ideas

Preparation for new learning or elaboration to increase understanding

assignment notebook
Assignment Notebook

Language Arts Assignment:

Math Due:

Science Learning Goal: As a result of doing this assignment, I should

Social Know more about…?

Studies Understand better…?

Be more skilled at…?

4 if homework is assigned comments should be made on it remember the power of feedback
4. If homework is assigned, comments should be made on it. Remember the power of FEEDBACK!

Whole Class

Small Group

One-on-one

Correct answers

Sample answers

Criteria to apply

Oral

Written

classroom practice in assigning homework
Classroom Practice in Assigning Homework
  • Establish and communicate homework policy
  • Design homework that clearly articulates the purpose and outcome.
  • Vary the approaches to providing feedback
      • Remember to employ feasible and meaningful procedures for providing feedback – this raises student accountability for completing the work!
nonlinguistic representations44
Nonlinguistic Representations

Generalizations from research on Nonlinguistic Representations:

  • A variety of activities produce Nonlinguistic representations.
    • Creating graphic representations
    • Making physical models
    • Drawing pictures and pictographs
    • Engaging in kinesthetic activities
nonlinguistic representation
Nonlinguistic Representation
  • Nonlinguistic representations should elaborate on knowledge
using nonlinguistic representations
Using Nonlinguistic Representations
  • One idea for using Nonlinguistic representations to teach or review vocabulary:
  • Vocabulary Plays
  • Introduce (or review) vocabulary words
  • Make sure students understand the words (use sentences, picture support, etc.)
  • Divide the class into pairs; give each pair a vocabulary word
  • Pairs secretly figure out how to act out their word
  • Class comes back together. Each pair acts out their word as the rest of the class guesses.
nonlinguistic possibilities to your lessons
Nonlinguistic Possibilities to your lessons

STORY STRUCTURE TO CHARACTER STUDY-review to polish

-Graphic organizers

-Pictures

-Webs of character traits

slide50

General 100

What are famous Georges?

slide52

General 200

What are famous rodents?

slide54

General 300

What are famous “Fords?”

slide56

General 400

What are famous “Newtons?”

slide58

General 500

What are famous “Bings”?

reinforcing effort and providing recognition60
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

Generalizations from research on Reinforcing Effort

  • Not all students realize the importance of believing in effort.
  • Students can learn to change their beliefs to an emphasis on effort.
reinforcing effort and providing recognition61
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

Generalizations from research on Providing Recognition:

  • Rewards do not necessarily have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation.
  • Reward is most effective when it is contingent on the attainment of some standard of performance.
  • Abstract symbolic rewards like verbal recognition are more effective than tangible rewards.
cooperative learning63
Cooperative Learning

Five defining elements of Cooperative Learning:

  • Positive Interdependence (we sink or swim together)
  • Face-to-Face Promotive Interaction (helping, sharing, and encouraging each other’s efforts)
  • Individual and Group Accountability (each of us has to contribute to the group achieving its goals)
  • Interpersonal and Small Group Skills (communication, trust, leadership, decision making, and conflict resolution)
  • Group Processing (reflecting on how well the group is functioning and how to function even better)
cooperative learning64
Cooperative Learning

Three cooperative learning generalizations for usage:

  • Organizing groups based on ability levels should be done sparingly.
  • Cooperative groups should be kept rather small in size.
  • Cooperative learning should be applied consistently and systematically, but not overused.
cooperative learning homogeneous vs heterogeneous grouping
Cooperative LearningHomogeneous vs. Heterogeneous Grouping

Ability Level of Students Percentile Gain

Low ability - 23

Medium ability 19

High ability 3

Data from Lou et al., 1996

cooperative learning size of groups
Cooperative LearningSize of Groups

Group Size Percentile Gain

Pairs 6

3 – 4 9

5 – 7 -1

summarizing
Summarizing

Generalizations from research on Summarizing:

  • To effectively summarize, students must delete some information, substitute some information, and keep some information.
  • To effectively delete, substitute, and keep information, students must analyze the information at a fairly deep level.
  • Being aware of the explicit structure of information is an aid to summarizing information.
summarizing69
Summarizing

The “Rule-Based” Strategy

  • Delete trivial material that is unnecessary to understanding.
  • Delete redundant material.
  • Substitute superordinate terms for lists (e.g., “flowers” for “daisies, tulips, and roses”).
  • Select a topic sentence, or invent one if it is missing.
summarizing70
Summarizing

Summary Frames

  • Narrative Frame
  • Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame
  • Definition Frame
  • Argumentation Frame
  • Problem/Solution Frame
  • Conversation Frame
note taking
Note Taking

Generalizations from research on Note Taking:

  • Verbatim note taking is, perhaps, the least effective way to take notes.
  • Notes should be considered a work in progress.
  • Notes should be used as study guides for tests.
  • The more notes that are taken, the better.
note taking72
Note Taking

Types of Notes

  • Informal Outline
  • Webbing
  • Combination Technique
generating and testing hypotheses74
Generating and Testing Hypotheses

Generalizations from research on Generating and Testing Hypotheses:

  • Hypothesis generation and testing can be approached in a more inductive or deductive manner.
  • Teachers should ask students to clearly explain their hypotheses and their conclusions.
generating and testing hypotheses77
Generating and Testing Hypotheses

Tasks to Guide Students

  • Systems Analysis
  • Problem Solving
  • Historical Investigation
  • Invention
  • Experimental Inquiry
  • Decision Making
cues questions and advance organizers79
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers

Generalizations from research on Cues and Questions:

  • Cues and questions should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual.
  • “Higher level” questions produce deeper learning than “lower level” questions.
  • “Waiting” briefly before accepting responses from students has the effect of increasing the depth of students’ answers.
  • Questions are effective learning tools even when asked before a learning experience.
cues questions and advance organizers80
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers

Generalizations from research on Advance Organizers:

  • Advance organizers should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual
  • “Higher level” advance organizers produce deeper learning than the “lower level” advance organizers.
  • Advance organizers are most useful with information that is not well organized.
  • Different types of advance organizers produce different results.
cues questions and advance organizers81
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers

Classroom Practice in Advance Organizers

  • Expository Advance Organizers
  • Narrative Advance Organizers
  • Skimming as a Form of Advance Organizer
  • Graphic Advance Organizers