Lab # 2 Blood Objectives: 1- List the functions of blood. 2- Describe each component of blood. 3- Distinguish each type of blood cell on a blood-smear slide. 4- Describe the antigen-antibody reactions of the ABO and Rh blood groups.
-Blood It is the liquid medium in which these substance travel. -Cardiovascular System The Circulatory System Blood vessels The plumbing that ensure the proper routing of blood to its destination. It transports substances from place to place in the body. Heart The muscular pump that makes blood to circulate through the blood vessels.
P L A S M A FORMED ELEMENTS White blood cells 0.1% Platelets 1- Composition of Whole Blood Water 92% Plasma proteins 7% Other solutes 1% Centrifugation Red blood cells 99.9%
P L A S M A They are made in the liver. Functions: Transport lipids and steroids hormones. It is also made in the liver. Functions:Essential component of clotting system They are produce by white blood cells (lymphocytes) and by the liver. Functions: Antibodies. Transport ions, hormones and lipids. Plasma is 92% water in which are dissolved proteins and a mixture of other materials (hormones, nutrients, wastes and electrolytes). Albumins (60%) Globulins (35%) Proteins of the plasma Fibrinogen (4%) Regulatory proteins (< 1%) Enzymes, proenzymes and hormones.
Formed Elements of Blood Monocyte Small lymphocyte Neutrophil Platelets Eosinophil Small lymphocyte Erythrocyte Neutrophil Monocyte Large lymphocyte Neutrophil Basophil
Red Blood Cells or Erythrocytes - They constitute 99.9% of all the formed cell in blood. - They are biconcave discs, thick in the outer edges and thin in the center. - They lack of nucleus and other organelles and live only an average of 120 days. Function: They contain the hemoglobin, which transport O2and CO2
White Blood Cells or Leukocytes 1- Granulocytes They contains granules, which contain lysosomal enzymes and bactericidal compounds. Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Monocytes Lymphocytes 2- Agranulocytes They have few or any granules
Granulocytes 1- Neutrophils - They form 50% to 70% of the circulating white blood cells (WBC). Normal value: 7,000 to 8,000/mm 3 - Their nucleus has 2 to 5 lobes - Granules are chemically neutral Functions They phagocyte bacteria, which have been market by antibodies and complement proteins. (Neutrophilia) Bacterial infection Neutrophils
Granulocytes 2- Eosinophils -They form 2% to 4% of circulating WBC - They have bilobulated nucleus - Granules are chemically acid (red) Functions They defend the body against parasites worms and flukes. Infection by parasites and allergy (Eosinophilia) Eosinophils
Vasodilator Anticoagulant Granulocytes 3- Basophils -They form less than 1% of circulating WBC - Granules are chemically basic (purple to blue) - Granules contain histamine and heparin Function They accumulate in damaged tissues and release chemicals that enhance the inflammation.
Agranulocytes 4- Monocytes - They are the largest leukocytes. - They are spherical with a nucleus that is oval or kidney bean shaped Functions - They stay in the blood for only 24 hours and then they move into the peripheral tissuesand become macrophages, which are very active and aggressive phagocytes. - They release chemicals that attract other WBCs to the injury site. - They defend the body against bacteria and viruses. - They help activate the lymphocytes.
Agranulocytes 5- Lymphocytes - They form 20% to 30% of the circulating WBCs - They have large nucleus and do not have granules Functions They play a crucial role in the specific immunity T cells:(cell-mediated immunity): They destroy virus infected cell, and they coordinate the immune response. B cells:(humoral immunity): They produce the plasma cells, which produce the antibodies. NK cells: They detect abnormal or cancerous cells and target them for destruction ( Immune surveillance).
Megakaryocyte 6- Platelets Platelets - They are fragments of megakaryocytes. - There are only 1/3 of them in the blood stream. The rest of them are in the spleen and other vascular organs. Functions - They transport enzymes and other chemicals that help to initiate and regulate blood clotting. - They form a temporary plug in the ruptured blood vessel wall. - They contract to reduce the size of the hole in the vessel wall.
Human Blood Cells Monocyte Red Blood Cells Lymphocytes Eosinophil Platelets Neutrophil Basophil
2- ABO and Rh Blood Groups Blood types and transfusion compatibility are a matter of interaction between antigens and antibodies. Antigens They are foreign substances that are able to trigger an immune response. Most of antigens are proteins. Antibodies They are proteins produced by cells of the immune system, which are able to recognize an interact with the corresponding antigens. Y Y Y Y Y Y Plasma cell Y Antigens Y Y Y Y
Antigen-antibody reaction is specific, meaning that the antibodies can recognize only the corresponding antigens. Y Y Y Y Y Y Antigens Plasma cell Plasma cell Y Antigens Y Y Y Y C C C C C C C C C C Antigens Plasma cell
The plasma membrane of the cells contains glycoproteins (surface markers) on the outer surface that can act as antigens. That means that they can trigger an immune response and can interact with the corresponding antibodies. Surface markers are genetically determined and are different in every person. They are responsible for transplant rejection. C C C C C Transplant rejection is a process in which a transplant recipient's immune system attacks the transplanted organ or tissue.
Blood types and transfusion compatibility are a matter of interaction between plasma antibodiesand surface antigens in the erythrocytes. The plasma membrane of the erythrocytes contains glycoproteins on the outer surface that can act as antigens. That means that they can interact with the corresponding antibodies. Type A ABO Blood Group Type B Type A B Type O
Plasma contains antibodies against surface antigens that are not present on self cells. That is why foreign tissues are rejected by the immune system. Plasma contains antibodies against surface antigens that are not present on self red blood cells. Neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies Anti-A and anti-B antibodies Anti-B antibodies Anti-A antibodies
When antibodies attack, the foreign cells agglutinate (clump together). This process is called agglutination. + Ab The antigens that determine the blood types are called agglutinogens, and the corresponding antibodies are called agglutinins
ABO Blood Typing Control Blood Type A B AB O
The Rh Group The Rh blood group is named for the rhesus monkey, the animal in which the Rh antigens were discovered in 1940. D D D D D D D D This group include numerous antigens (C, D, E). Antigen D is by far the most reactive and it is used for Rh typing. Rh + Rh -
Rh Blood Typing Anti Rh Control Blood Type Rh + Rh -
ABO and Rh Blood Typing Control Anti-A Anti-B Anti-D Control Anti-A Anti-B Anti-D A- AB- AB+ A+ B- O- B+ O+
Transfusion Reaction The agglutinated RBCs lodge in smaller blood vessels and cut of the blood flow to vital organs. Blood from type A donor Free hemoglobin can block the kidney tubules and produce death from acute renal failure within a week or so. Type B (anti-A) recipient Donor RBCs agglutinated by recipient plasma Agglutinated RBCs block small vessels
Hemolytic Disease of Newborn leaves Rh- mother Rh antigen Second Rh+ fetus Rh+ fetus Uterus Anti-D antibody Amniotic sac and chorion Placenta (a) First pregnancy (b) Between pregnancies (c) Second pregnancy • Rh antibodies attack fetal blood causing severe anemia and toxic brain syndrome (Hemolytic Disease of the New Born).