Modern history. Organization of the summer term PS (12 weeks) 17. 2. 2014 – 10. 5. 2014 Examinations (4 weeks) 12. 5. 2014 – 7. 6. 2014
Form of examinationWritten test. Obligatory attendance at workshops: 75 %In order to successfully graduate the course the students will also have to prepare presentations for each lecture in advance that will be presented at each lecture.
2. February 25, 2014: PR in a new millennium (definitions, principles)
3. March 3, 2014: PR as a part of the communication
4. March 11, 2014: Corporate identity
5. March 18, 2014: Internal PR
6. March 25, 2013: Crisis communication
8. April 8, 2014: Social media
9. April 15, 2014: PR tools (HR, media relations)
10. April 22, 2014: PR, lobbying and sponsoring
11. April 29, 2014: PR strategy, planning
12. May 6, 2014: Professional associations of PR, PR ethics
Public relations: anemergingprofession, originated in late 19th centurywith rapid expansionthrough 20th century
Definition: 472 possibledefinitions - RexHarlow
Many definitions since than, one of the useful is the definition set up by the Institute of Public Relations (IPR) in 1987:
Public Relations is the planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and understanding between and organization and its publics.
PR activities are not automatic or effortless. They have to be established and maintained. The aim is not popularity or approval, but goodwill and understanding.
Public Relations is not just about promoting the organizations, PR work has to ensure that publics have an accurate view of the organization, even if they do not like what the it does (Revenue and Customers, IRS – they do not expect to be loved for their activities, but might hope to be respected or at least understood.
More recently the Chartered Institute of Public Relations (CIPR) extended its definition to:
Public Relations practice is the discipline concerned with the reputation of organizations (products, services, individuals) with the aim of earning understanding and support.
Public Relations is about reputation: the result of what you do, what you say and what others say about you…
Public – what does it mean?
PRis not about dealing with „the public“ – there is not such thing as the public. Instead there are many different groups of people: consumers, suppliers, employees, trustees, members, political bodies, local residents…… all of them have different information needs and exert different demands on organizations. Understanding these differences is vital skill of PR.
Definitions that most textbooks leave out are the definitions of PR by critics: PR = synonymous with propaganda, evidenced by a constant stream of abuses of public trust by corporate communicators…
1. Paid Space vs.Free Coverage
Advertising:The company pays for ad space. You know exactly when that ad will air or be published.
Public Relations:Your job is to get free publicity for the company. From conferences to press releases, you're focused on getting free media exposure for the company and its products/services…
2. CreativeControlvs No Control
Advertising:Since you're paying for the space, you have creative control on what goes into that ad.
Public Relations:You have no control over how the media presents your information, if they decide to use your info at all. They're not obligated to cover your event or publish your press release just because you sent something to them.
Advertising:Since you pay for the space, you can run your ads over and over for as long as your budget allows. An ad generally has a longer shelf life than one press release.
Public Relations:You only submit a press release about a new product once. You only submit a press release about a news conference once. The PR exposure you receive is only circulated once. An editor won't publish your same press release three or four times in their magazine.
Advertising:Consumers know when they're reading an advertisement they're trying to be sold a product or service.
Public Relations:When someone reads a third-party article written about your product or views coverage of your event on TV, they're seeing something you didn't pay for with ad dollars and view it differently than they do paid advertising.
"Where we can generate some sort of third-party 'endorsement' by independent media sources, we can create great credibility for our clients' products or services," Flowers said.
"The consumer understands that we have paid to present our selling message to him or her, and unfortunately, the consumer often views our selling message very guardedly," Paul Flowers, president of Dallas-based Flowers & Partners, Inc., said. "After all, they know we are trying to sell them."
5. Creativityor Nose forNews
In advertising, you get to exercise your creativity in creating new ad campaigns and materials.
Public Relations:In public relations, you have to have a nose for news and be able to generate buzz through that news.
You exercise your creativity, to an extent, in the way you search for new news to release to the media.
6. Target audience orHooked editor
Advertising:You're looking for your target audience and advertising accordingly. You wouldn't advertise a women's TV network in a male-oriented sports magazine.
Public Relations:You must have an angle and hook editors to get them to use info for an article, to run a press release or to cover your event.
7. In-house orOut on the Town
If you're working at an ad agency, your main contacts are your co-workers and the agency's clients.
If you buy and plan ad space on behalf of the client, then you'll also interact with media sales people.
Public Relations:You interact with the media and develop a relationship with them. Your contact is not limited to in-house communications. You're in constant touch with your contacts at the print publications and broadcast media.
8. Limited orUnlimitedcontact
Advertising:Some industry pros have contact with the clients. Others like copywriters or graphic designers in the agency may not meet with the client at all.
Public Relations:Youare very visible to the media. PR pros aren't always called on for the good news.
If there was an accident at your company, you may have to give a statement or on-camera interview to journalists. You may represent your company as a spokesperson at an event. Or you may work within community relations to show your company is actively involved in good work and is committed to the city and its citizens.
Advertising:If your company sponsors an event, you wouldn't want to take out an ad giving yourself a pat on the back for being such a great company. This is where your PR department steps in.
Public Relations:If you're sponsoring an event, you can send out a press release and the media might pick it up. They may publish the information or cover the event.
10. Writing style
Advertising:Buy this product! Act now! Call today! Subscribefor the membership just now! These are all things you can say in an advertisement. You want to use those buzz words to motivate people to buy your product.
Public Relations:You're strictly writing in a no-nonsense news format. Any blatant commercial messages in your communications are disregarded by the media.
If public relations is concerned with driving awareness, building brand reputation and “the story,”
marketing is more explicitly concerned with “the sale” and the bottom line. The messaging may be similar, and sales are a component of PR, but the marketing department is most often concerned with tactics to drive immediate purchases like e-mail marketing, coupons and signage. Public relations is still very much focused on securing media coverage.
Public relations activity
Internal communication Communication with employees In house newsletter, suggestion boxes
Communicating on behalf of the whole company, not goods or services
Annual reports, conferences, visual identity, images
Communicating with journalists, editors from local, national, international and trade media (newspapers, magazines, radio, TV, web based com.)
Press releases, video news releases, press events
Business to business
Communication with other organizations (suppliers, retailers)
Exhibitions, trade fairs, newsletters
Communication with opinion formers (KOFs) – politicians, scientists
Presentations, private meetings, public speeches
Communicating with local community, representatives, headteachers…
Exhibitions, letters, meetings, sport activities, sponsorship
Public relations activity
Investor relations Communication fin. organis/indiv. Events, briefings, newsletter
Analysis of the situation, problem and solution to further organ. goals
Researching, planning and executing a campaign to improve ethical reputation of organization
Monitoring political, social, economic and technological environment
Effect of US economy and presidential campaign on OK organization
Communicating clear messages in fast changing situation/emergency
Dealing with media after major rail crash on behalf of police, hospital…
Writing for different audiences to high standards of literacy
Press releases, newsletter, web pages, annual reports
Overseeing print/media processes, oftenusing new technology
Leaflets, internal magazines, websites
Events managements, exhibitions
Organization of complex events, exhibitions
Annual conferences, press launch, trade shows
Using a press release distribution service can cost money and make the process of getting information out to the public an expensive proposition. Prior to releasing information, target the audiences that you feel would have the greatest interest in your press release or marketing data.
A well-written press release can help the public understand the point you are trying to make. Including a pertinent picture with your press release can give the public a visual image that will either add emphasis to your message, or clarify any potential confusion that your message may cause.
A public relations professional's best allies are journalists. Good media relations will not only get your press releases printed in spots where the public will see them, they can also result in personal interviews that will gain your company even more exposure.
Understand all of the public relations tools at your disposal and know how to use them. Press releases, speeches, personal interviews, seminars, web broadcasts and direct mail pieces are just some of the tools a public relations professional can use to reach the target audience.
Some public relations pieces can be scheduled for release well in advance. For example, the announcement of a new product is something a public relations professional can coordinate with the marketing group to get the timing right. But a public relations group should also be prepared to release important information on a moment's notice to coincide with a scandal or corporate emergency.
Reporters cannot confirm information in time to make print deadlines if you are not available at all times. Availability is critical for a public relations professional, and that means giving all of your contact information to the media and remaining on call at all times.
Your company should not wait for moments to present public relations materials. You should remain active in finding new ways to get information to the consumer or media. Make yourself available for speeches and seminars, and become an active member in professional and civic organizations.
Never release information until it has been thoroughly checked for accuracy. Develop a fact-checking system for press releases and all public relations materials that will get the information to all pertinent parties to sign off on before it is made public.
Never deceive the public with any information you release. A lie will be uncovered and the resulting fallout from deceit can be worse than the issue you were trying to cover up. Present the facts in a way that sheds as much positive light on your company as possible.
Every piece of public relations material that comes from your company should have contact information that includes a contact name, phone number, email address and mailing address. Give the public a chance to follow up on the information you released and the media a chance to present further information if they find the story interesting.
1. Contention. Involves one party forcing its position on another.
2. Cooperation. Both parties work together to reach a mutually beneficial solution.
3. Accommodation. One party partially yields on its position and lowers its aspirations.
4. Avoidance. One or both parties leave the conflict either physically or psychologically.
5. Unconditional Constructive. The organization reconciles the strategic interests of
both the organization and its publics, whether the public follows guidelines or not,
even if the other party to the conflict does not reciprocate.
6. Compromise. An alternative agreement that stands part way between the parties’
7. Principled. Both parties hold to higher ethics that cannot be compromised.
8. Win-Win or No Deal. Both parties hold off on any agreement until they are ready
for the deal to be struck.
9. Mediated. Involves use of an outside disinterested party.