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Fungi. Chapter 19 Señora Ettinger. Answer these questions: How do fungi differ from other organisms? How does the lifestyle of a fungus enable it to obtain food? What factors make each phylum of fungi distinctive? How do fungi affect humans?. Look at page 406 of your textbook

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fungi

Fungi

Chapter 19

Señora Ettinger

slide2
Answer these questions:
  • How do fungi differ from other organisms?
  • How does the lifestyle of a fungus enable it to obtain food?
  • What factors make each phylum of fungi distinctive?
  • How do fungi affect humans?
slide3
Look at page 406 of your textbook
  • What do you see in the main picture on this page?
  • Read the caption. What is really shown in the picture?
  • Are “fungus flowers” made of fungus?
  • Why would a fungus go to all the trouble of making a plant imitate a flower?
page 406 continued
Page 406 continued
  • Do you think this fungus hurts or helps the rock cress plant?
  • Would you guess that fungi could flower on its own?
characteristics of fungi
Characteristics of Fungi
  • Cell structure
  • Lifestyle
  • Food acquisition
  • Habitat
  • Cell walls
fungi plants
Fungi—plants?
  • Cell wall
  • Mitosis
  • Chlorophyll
  • Dikaryon stage
other characteristics of fungi
Other characteristics of Fungi
  • Heterotrophs
  • Digest food outside its body by secreted enzymes then absorb the nutrients
  • Typically terrestrial
  • Key decomposers of plant material
  • Most derive their nutrition from plants
  • Cell walls made of chitin
fungal niches
Fungal Niches
  • Saprobes-
  • Parasites-
  • Symbiotic

Mutuals

hyphae
Hyphae
  • The dominant structure of fungi
  • Long, multinucleated, typically multicelled, one-cell thick fungal tissue
  • Typically hidden from sight since fungi grow their hyphae into their food
  • Serve as vascular channels along which nutrients are passed
mycelium
Mycelium
  • What is it?
septa
Septa
  • What is it?
part 2
Part 2:
  • Reproduction
  • Fungal Divisions
reproduction
Reproduction
  • All nuclei are haploid except for zygote nuclei (except some Chytridiomycota)
  • In the sexual reproduction, hyphae of two different mating strains meet and fuse but the two types of nuclei may coexist without fusion for most of the life of the fungus
  • Fungi reproduce by relasin spores
reproduction25
Reproduction
  • Monokaryotic compartment has a single nucleus
  • Dikaryotic compartment has two genetically distinct nuclei
    • Heterokaryotic hyphae have two kinds of genetically different nuclei
    • Homokaryotic hyphae have genetically similar nuclei
reproductive structures
Reproductive Structures
  • Sporangia:
  • Gametangia:
  • Conidia
fungal divisions
Fungal Divisions
  • Plant-like, this groupings are called divisions instead of phyla
  • Presently differentiated from slime molds and water molds
fungal divisions29
Fungal Divisions
  • Chytridiomycota
  • Zygomycota
  • Ascomycota
  • Basidiomycota
  • Deuteromycota (Fungi imperfecti) Your book doesn’t mention this one.
slide32
Read
  • Modern Genetics Versus Ancient Frog-Killing Fungus.
  • Write a synopsis in the space provided.
  • Be ready to answer questions
slide33

Chytridiomycota

Zygomycota

zygomycota what does the name imply
Zygomycota: What does the name imply?
  • What does the name imply?
zygomycota
Zygomycota
  • Non-reproductive hyphae lack septa
  • Include the common bread molds
  • Produce zygospores
life cycle and sexual reproduction
Life Cycle and Sexual Reproduction
  • Sexual reproduction is via fusion of multinucleate gametangia
  • May occur between same or different mating types
  • Massive, haploid zygospore forms around diploid zygote nuclei
  • Meisois occurs during germination
asexual reproduction
Asexual Reproduction
  • Haploid spores are produced within sporangia
  • Sporangium forms at the tip of erect hypha, with separating septum
  • Spores shed above substrate, dispersed by wind
slide40

Chytridiomycota

Ascomycota

ascomycota
Ascomycota
  • Beneficial
  • Harmful forms
morels
Morels

True Morel

False Morel

ascomycota51
Ascomycota
  • Has a characteristic reproductive structure called an ascus.
  • A diploid zygote forms within ascus.
  • Asci form on ascocarp of densely interwoven hyphae
sexual reproduction
Sexual Reproduction
  • Ascogonia are female, have trichogyne
  • Antheridia are male, fuse with trichogyne
  • Male nuclei travel to ascogonium to pair with opposite nuclei
  • Heterokaryotic hyphae arise from point of fusion
  • An ascus containing two nuclei forms at the hyphal tip
sexual reproduction54
Sexual Reproduction
  • Nuclei within the ascus fuse, forming diploid zygote which immediately undergoes meiosis
  • Four haploid daughter nuclei are the result.
  • These haploid daughter nuclei undergo mitosis to form 8 ascospores
  • The ascospores are then released, in most cases by the ascus bursting.
asexual reproduction55
Asexual Reproduction
  • Conidia are produced at the ends of conidiophores. Conidiophores are the stalk-like vertical growths on the hyphae. Spores are formed at the end of the conidiophores and are separated by septum and are called conidia.
  • The spores are released and then germinate
slide56

Chytridiomycota

Basidiomycota

basidiomycota
Basidiomycota
  • Includes mushrooms, jelly fungi, puffballs, rusts and smuts
  • Includes edible as well as poisonous varieties
basidiomycota67
Basidiomycota
  • Characteristic reproductive structure is called a basidium.
  • Syngamy occurs within basidium
  • Meiosis occurs immediately, forming four haploid basidiospores
  • Four basidiospores are borne on one basidium
sexual reproduction69
Sexual Reproduction
  • Spore germinates forming homokaryotic hyphae
  • Eventually septa form between nuclei of primary mycelium
  • Dikaryotic, heterokaryotic secondary mycelium forms when hyphae of different mating types fuse
  • Basidiocarps form of completely dikaryotic hyphae
  • Basidia line the gills of typical mushrooms
deuteromycota
Deuteromycota
  • Commonly called Fungi Imperfecti because they exhibit only asexual reproduction
  • Mostly ascomycetes, few zygomycetes and basidiomycetes
  • Many are human and plant pathogens
  • Others produce important chemicals such as penicillin
parasexuality
Parasexuality
  • Parasexuality occurs when two different hyphae fuse forming heterokaryotic hyphae. The two different nuclei may exchange portions of chromosomes between nuclei.
  • Provides a certain amount of genetic recombination.
fungal associations
Fungal Associations
  • Lichens
  • Mycorrhizae
lichens
Lichens
  • Mostly ascomycetes with green algae and/or cyanobacterium
  • Specialized hyphae penetrate or envelop photosynthetic cells
  • Fungal chemical signals direct photosynthetic metabolism
  • Could be considered a form of controlled parasitism
lichens74
Lichens
  • Reproduction of the fungal portion is via normal fungal sexual reproduction
  • Reproduction of the photosynthetic component is asexual
  • The lichen as a whole can fragment and be transported by wind… to a new location to form a new individual
lichens75
Lichens
  • Can inhabit cold, dry, generally harsh environments
  • Help break rock surfaces and prepare habitat for other organisms
  • Coloration of lichen protects photosynthetic partner
  • Can survive adverse conditions by nearly halting metabolism
mycorrhizae
Mycorrhizae
  • Most plant roots associated with certain fungi
  • Fungus aid in transfer of soil nutrients into roots
  • Plant provides organic carbon to fungus
  • Arbuscular mycorrhizae and ectomycorrhizae
arbuscular mycorrhizae
Arbuscular Mycorrhizae
  • Hyphae penetrate outer cells of root
  • More common mycorrhizae, generally a zygomycetes
  • May increase yield of crops with less energy input
ectomycorrhizae
Ectomycorrhizae
  • Hyphae surround, but do not penetrate roots
  • Less common, mostly basidiomycetes, some ascomycetes
  • Characteristic symbiont of shrubs and trees
advantages
Advantages
  • Plants more resistant to drought, cold and harsh conditions
  • May provide better protection against acid precipitation
  • Prevent accumulation of toxic metals
  • Speed germination of orchid seeds
  • Provide better growth in poor soils