Chapter 14 The Beginnings of Our Global Age: Europe, Africa and Asia
Section 1: The Search for SpicesFocus Question: How did the search for spices lead to global exploration?
Prior to 1500 – trade controlled by Arab and Italian merchants Europeans knew they needed direct access to Asia Moluccas – island chain that is chief source of spices SPICES = MOST VALUABLE ITEMS Motivations for Exploring
Led the way in exploration for Portugal Started academy to train navigators and cartographers Lure of Africa Portuguese could convert Africans to Christianity Sources of riches of Muslims Redesigned ships, prepared maps, trained captains/crews Died in 1460 Prince Henry
Portuguese/Spanish Explorations • 1488 – Bartholomeu Diaz – “Cape of Good Hope” – new sea route to Asia • He chose to round the southern tip of Africa • The route gave sailors a direct route to Asia • The first permanent European settlement in Africa • 1497 – Vascoda Gama – first European to reach India • Portugal becomes world power • Created a vast trading network for Portugal • 1513- Vasco Nunez de Balboa first reaches the Pacific Ocean • By traveling overland through Panama
1492 – sails for Spain under sponsorship of Ferdinand and Isabella Looked for direct route to the East Indies Underestimated the size of the earth Landed in the Caribbean thinking he was in the Indies “Indians” Died thinking he found the new route Christopher Columbus
Line of Demarcation – divided non-European world into two sections Spain West of the line; Portugal East Portugal claimed its empire of Brazil Treaty signed between Spain & Portugal Other nations begin to build empires Treaty of Tordesillas
Sailed from Spain to find a way to the Pacific Ocean 1520 – reached South America – Straight of Magellan Named Pacific for “peaceful” Magellan kept going across Pacific 1521 – Reached Philippines – Magellan dies Crew returns to Spain – first to circumnavigate the world Ferdinand Magellan
Section 1: Focus Question: How did the search for spices lead to global exploration?
Section 2: Turbulent Centuries in AfricaFocus Question: What effects did European exploration have on the people of Africa?
The Portuguese want to trade directly with the people of Africa, India, and Asia. This would bypass the middleman—the Muslim traders. They established port cities along the coasts of west and later, east Africa. They continue to establish forts, but all attack existing coastal cities such as Mombasa, which was a center for international trade.
The African Slave Trade ♦The Europeans use their contacts in Africa to purchase slaves from Africans (they purchased people from rival tribes). ♦The Spanish were the first to participate in the Atlantic slave trade.
The Slave Trade Expands • Portuguese quickly learned the profitability of trading humans • They send them to plantations- large estates in the Americas • Affonso 1, a ruler of Kongo, tried to stop this trade • He had a history with the Portuguese because he had been tutored by missionaries
The Asante kingdom, under Osei Tutu, became a very powerful African nation—traded slaves and gold with Europeans. • He united his people by claiming they shared spiritual bonds • Like at the Elmina Castle, in Ghana, West Africa.
Focus Questions:What effects did European exploration have on the people of Africa?
Section 3 • How did European nations build empires in South and Southeast Asia?
Portugal Builds an Empire ♦ Island of Goa—becomes major military base of the Portuguese. ♦It was seized by the Portuguese in 1510 ♦Portuguese also seize the East Indies port of Malacca, killing all of the city’s Muslims. ♦ The Netherlands later take this from the Portuguese and develop a monopoly of trade in the Spice Islands ♦Portuguese now have a large trading empire which controlled the spice trade between Europe and Asia.
The Boers ♦Dutch set up colonies and trading posts around the world—they become a powerful competitor. ♦Build a settlement in Cape Town, South Africa, a strategic place for the Dutch— they control trade around Africa— Dutch farmers (Boers). ♦ The Boers followed a Calvinist belief that they were chosen by God. They looked on Africans as inferiors. ♦ This would eventually lead to a number of wars called the Boer Wars.
Portugal Builds an Eastern Empire • After da Gama’s voyage, and under Afonso de Albuquerque, the Portuguese begin to take over the Indian Ocean • Muslim rulers establish the Mughal empire throughout much of India
Rise of the Dutch • 1602-Dutch East India Company is set up with full sovereign powers—the power to build armies, wage war, negotiate treaties, and govern overseas territories.
The Mughal Empire Declines ♦Conflicts between Hindus and Muslims causes the empire in India to decline—the British and French compete for control of India. ♦The British and French set up East India companies, like the Dutch had.
♦By the 1700s, the French and British were competing for colonial territories across the world. ♦Each East India company hired Sepoys, or Indian troops to fight. ♦British use their army, plus Sepoys, to drive out the French—Britain controlled India by the late 1700s.
Chinese felt their goods were superior Portuguese wanted silk and porcelain Nothing to exhange Missionaries in China Jesuits became source of information Contact with Ming China
♦ Mings rejects contact with Europeans- because they proclaimed, “our empire owns the world”. *They allowed limited trade with the intent of it only be temporary ♦The Ming dynasty is conquered by the Manchus. ♦Including their trading post, Macao
Focus Questions:How did European nations build empires in South and Southeast Asia?
Section 4 How were European encounters in East Asia shaped by their views of Europeans and Asians?
Qing (ching) Dynasty • Qianlong- successful ruler who expanded China’s borders to the largest area in history • Chinese industry expands • Retired after 60 years because he did not want to rule longer than his grandfather had • New dynasty that ruled China after the decline of the Ming dynasty • Gained popularity because they blended Manchu and Chinese rulers in government
♦Unlike the Koreans and Chinese Japan first accepts contact with Europeans ♦Philippines—people could not unite—Spanish easily take over the Philippines