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The e-Training Module. Development of Methods and Tools for The Establishment of Good Environmental Performance in The Tourist Accommodation Sector GREEN-TAS. About the Module.

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    1. The e-Training Module Development of Methods and Tools for The Establishment of Good Environmental Performance in The Tourist Accommodation Sector GREEN-TAS

    2. About the Module The e-training module is an outcome of GREEN-TAS Project funded by EC though Life Environmental Program. This e-training module is designated by the project to ensure implementation of environmental management and sustainability procedures in hotels and other stakeholders in the Jordanian tourism sector. The e-training module aims at making its users aware of the following topics: • The impact of hotels on environment. • Issues in regard to environmental performance of hotels. • Legislations in regard to environmental performance of hotels. • Environmental Management System (EMS). • Success stories of hotels that implemented EMS: the case of Mövenpick hotels in Jordan (Dead Sea and Petra regions); as well as cases from some Euro Med regions. • The environmental and economic benefits gained by implementing environmental management system.

    3. How to Use the Module This module is designated to ensure implementation of environmental management and sustainability procedures in your hotel or tourism facility. In order to obtain the maximum benefit from this module, we suggest that you do the following: • Go through the section regarding the relationship between the hotels and the environment. • You will find then a section regarding environmental performance issues in hotels; choose the topic of your interest (energy management, water management, chemical use…etc), you will find that you will go through the following stages: • You will find also information about EMAS “easy” for Small and Medium Enterprises; such information will help you in setting up your environmental management system up and will make you ready for EMAS registration. • Some information is also given about cost benefit analyses for implementing environmental management systems. • You will find also the outcomes of GREEN-TAS Project in the library section of this training module.

    4. Introduction: What is GREEN-TAS about? • Tourism has been growing as an important sector in the Jordanian economy, such growth was combined with an increase in services and facilities, and hotels are one of them. About 476 classified, unclassified hotels and other types of accommodation are distributed all over Jordan. These hotels are causing some serious impacts on the environment. These impacts include overuse of energy sources and water, different forms of pollutions, inappropriate disposal of both waste water and solid waste, and degradation of surrounding landscapes. All these impacts make it necessary to develop plans to ensure sustainability in hotels. The GREEN-TAS Project aims at addressing problems and impacts caused by tourism accommodations in Jordan. This will help in developing a number of strategies and instru­ments that will ensure sustainable development of tourism accommodation sector. The GREEN-TAS Project is supported by the European Commission through its environmental instrument “LIFE Program”.

    5. Introduction: What is GREEN-TAS about?  The GREEN-TAS Project aims at the following: • To analyze the tourist industry in Jordan and the prevailing opportunities and constraints related to the hotel accommodation sector. • To develop strategies and policies for the improvement of the hotels’ environmental performance in Jordan. • To identify and analyze success stories in relation to the hotels’ environmental performance in order to exploit the European and other best practices and know-how on the hotels’ environmental performance. • To elaborate real cases (pilot studies) for the determination and monitoring of the environmental impacts of the hotel sector in Jordan. • To develop and implement methodologies for the enhancement of the hotels’ environmental behavior and performance in Jordan. • To perform an economic analysis for the application of EMS in the hotels in Jordan. • To develop methods and tools for the monitoring and reporting of the hotels’ environmental actions, impacts and improvements. • To disseminate this methodology and make it available among those concerned. • To develop a guiding tool for implementation of environmental hotel best practices. • To develop a relevant e-training module. For more information about the project, please go to our project official website: http://www.just.edu.jo/green_tas/

    6. Environmental Performance of Hotels This section includes the core of the e-training module; it clarifies first the impact of hotels on the environment in general, then it discusses the main issues related to the environmental performance. These issues include: • Energy Conservation and Management • Water Conservation and Management • Waste Management • Ecopurchasing • Chemical Use • Air Quality • Noise • Guest Awareness • Staff Training • Other Environmental Procedures

    7. Hotels and Environment Although of the great importance of hotels in the tourism industry as a main provider of services to tourists, and a great generator of income and job opportunities; the negative impacts they cause can not be ignored: • Hotels in general overuse fresh water sources for its pools, golf courses and for irrigating their green areas (if existed). • Hotels in general overuse fresh water sources for the personal use of guests. • Hotels also contribute to the generation of waste water and solid waste. • In some cases, hotels result in producing toxic waste because of overusing chemicals in some operations, as in laundry. • Some hotels on sea shores highly contribute to the damage of coral reefs and marine life; and might cause degradation of landscape through their construction if it was not planned in a sustainable manner. • Hotels in wildlife areas highly cause the disturbance to their species. • When hotels are located near to historical and archaeological sites, they might increase the opportunity for their degradation. • Another important issue is the high contribution to the overuse of energy sources (such as electricity) (ESCWA 2003; Sweeting & Sweeting 2002)

    8. Hotels and Environment The following illustration is showing the different impacts of hotels on the environment and their sources: The Relation between Hotels and Environment (Bohdanowicz 2004) Bibliography • ESCWA, 2003. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia: A Guide to Efficient Energy Management in the Tourism Sector, United Nations, New York. • Sweeting, J. & Sweeting A. 2002. A Practical Guide to Good Practice: Managing Environmental and Social Issues in the Accommodations Sector, issued by: United Nations Environmental Program and The Center of Environmental Leadership in Business. • Bohdanowicz, P. 2004. Hotels and the Environment, from: http://www.greenthehotels.com/eng/handenv.htm ; retrieved on: June 17, 2008.

    9. Energy; The Significance of the Topic • Hotels and other types of accommodations are considered as one of the main services' providers in tourism sector. Hotels use significant amounts of energy for daily operations and recreational activities (Sweeting & Sweeting 2002). • Building climate control and general services in the hotel are composed of passive cooling, energy management and control systems (EMCS), distributed and central cooling system, ice storage, and desiccant dehumidification, occupancy sensors / key cards, that is in addition to laundry and kitchen equipments. (ESCWA 2003) • In many facilities, energy costs are the second-highest operational costs after payroll. • Such considerable cost of energy is due to using technology and different sources of energy to provide comforts and conveniences to hotel guests. The vast majority of hotels and resorts meet their energy needs by purchasing energy produced through the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas), such processes are main contributors to different kinds of environmental pollution and global climate change. (Sweeting & Sweeting 2002) • Electricity and thermal energy are the main energy forms used in the tourism facilities for necessary services. Electricity is used throughout the tourist accommodations for several tasks, including lighting, water heating, air conditioning, plumbing, laundry operations and desalination. The thermal energy is mostly used for hot water in guestrooms, the kitchen and the laundry. • The electricity energy is usually provided through grid connection, diesel generators, gas turbines, photovoltaics, wind electric systems, hybrid systems and solar thermal. The thermal energy sources include petroleum-based fuels, solar water heating, waste heat / cogeneration, hot water storage and seawater active / passive. (USAID 1991).

    10. Energy; The Significance of the Topic Since such energies are depending directly or indirectly on burning fossil fuels to run different kinds of operation, it means then a business expense through the cost of energy, and not less important a significant cause of degradation to environment and to the community. Consequently, there are several benefits that can be gained through improving energy consumption in hotels and other different tourism establishments, according to (ESCWA 2003); these can be listed as follows: • Reduced resource consumption and reduced costs. • Customer loyalty and enhanced public image. • Attracting and retaining dedicated staff. • Avoid sanctions from environmental authorities. • Improve competitiveness in the world markets. • Long-term business benefits.

    11. Energy; How would I know that my hotel has a problem? According to the environmental pack issued by EUHOFA, IHRA & UNEP (2001), you need to go through the following checklist of procedures; it will help in identifying the weakness points in your hotel in regard to this issue: • Monitoring the amounts of energy and fuel consumed in the hotel every month/ year. • Checking if the hotel shuts down the power supply in areas that are not in use. • Checking adjustment of temperature settings to ensure comfort levels and minimum energy use. • Checking if the fuel used is cheap and efficient. • Checking if the energy plant and equipments are over ten years old. • The use of energy-saving light bulbs. • The efforts made to encourage employees and staff to save energy during their work time. • The efforts made to encourage guests to save energy while staying in the hotel. • The use of thermostatically controlled appliances. • Checking if there is any increase in fuel and power costs in the last few years.

    12. Energy; What can I do? One of the real challenges facing hotels any where is reducing the costs of using energy while satisfying the needs of costumers. This can be possible by using proven energy-efficiency measures; it was found that hotels could cut energy costs by 20 percent or more by such implication. Major energy expenditures in hotels include lighting for guest rooms and common areas, heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems (HVAC) and motors in equipment such as elevators. (http://www.ase.org/section/topic/ee_hotels/, retrieved on: October 30 2006) Conserving Energy through HVAC Systems: Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are usually seen as the largest electricity consumers in hotels. It was estimated that the amount of electricity used for running air conditioning systems is composing approximately 30% or more of total expenditures of energy consumption. HVAC systems provide heating, cooling, humidity control, filtration, fresh air, building pressure control and comfort control. The followings are some practical implications that can improve the efficiency of HVAC system: • Insulation: when insulating all heating and cooling lines/vessels using appropriate insulation thickness, minimizing heat gains or losses becomes possible. • Building Envelope: measures as false ceilings and segregation of critical areas for air conditioning by air curtains all can optimize the effective space requiring air conditioning. • Building Heat Load Minimization: Minimizing the air conditioning loads can be done by some procedures as roof cooling, roof reflectance, efficient lighting, and optimal thermostat setting of temperature of air conditioned spaces, sun film applications, etc.

    13. Energy; What can I do? • Solar Heat Gain Control: Such control can be achieved by installing awnings, overhangs, or low e-coated windows with low Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC). • Select high-efficiency units when replacing HVAC equipment: Although some high-efficiency units may be more expensive than average-efficiency units, the higher initial payment can be recovered through increased energy savings in a very short time. It is necessary to conduct a proper maintenance of HVAC systems, such as cleaning filters and maintaining proper refrigerant charge on wall units and packaged systems. (http://www.ase.org/section/topic/ee_hotels/, retrieved on: October 30 2006) The continuous maintenance of HVAC systems is essential to approach the energy efficiency, this can implemented through the following steps: (as mentioned in ESCWA 2003) • Maintain insulation on piping and duct systems to prevent energy loss. • Maintain crushed or leaking ducts in the air system. • Evaluate insulation levels in ceiling and add insulation as needed. • Keep heat exchange surfaces, heating units and heating coils clean. • Block unneeded windows. • Use vinyl curtains or air blowers for loading dock doors to reduce the loss of conditioned air when shipping and/or receiving supplies. • Maintain frequent cleaning and monitoring of water used for humidification to ensure efficient operations and avoid damage to other HVAC components. • Evaluate equipment’s efficiency when installing/ replacing HVAC systems. Look for high efficiency ratings at least 10 EER/SEER and humidity capacity at least 30%.

    14. Energy; What can I do? Conserving Energy through Lightings: Improving the energy efficiency through lighting is a very common issue, and it has a great potential starting at the design stage by incorporating modern energy-efficient lamps and luminaries.  By installing new lighting technologies such as dimmers, photo sensors, occupancy sensors, and timers; it becomes possible to reduce both the amount of electricity and energy costs exploited in lighting. There are several types of lighting technologies that proved to be energy saving and affordable, the followings are some of them: • Energy-efficient fluorescent lamps instead of "conventional" fluorescent lamps. • Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) instead of incandescent lamps. • Installation of high pressure sodium vapor (HPSV) lamps for applications where color rendering is not critical. • Mercury vapor lamps should also be considered. • LED exit signs instead of incandescent ones. • Microprocessor-based controllers. • Optimum usage of day-lighting in new designs. • High frequency (HF) electronic ballasts instead of conventional ballasts. • Occupancy sensors, an affordable way to guarantee that unneeded lights do not remain on. • Photocells, devices that automatically detect the natural light level in a room, consequently the artificial light intensity will accordingly be adjusted.

    15. Energy; What can I do? • An automatic device, such as a key tag system, will improve housekeeping energy management. It will also help improving the load factor in the electrical system. Using a key-card system will make only occupied rooms consume energy; also most electrical appliances are switched off when the key-card is removed, this method is significant particularly when the guest does not stay for a long period of time in his room. • Replacing incandescent wall lights and exit sign lighting with CFL or LED-lit units will save energy, and will save labor costs used to change light bulbs, that is due to the fact that CFLs and LEDs last much longer than incandescent bulbs. There are some guidelines that can be applied by hotel management to save energy consumed through lighting, also to reduce costs resulted from such operation, according to the report by (ESCWA 2003), and the following can be done during design and construction phase: • Using occupation cards to disconnect air conditioning systems and lighting when guests exit the room. • Efficient lighting, in all areas as appropriate. • Maximum usage as possible of daylight (especially in lobby areas), this is related to designing windows and skylights. • Installing photocells that turn on and off in response to natural daylight. • Installing sheer curtains in guest room, these filter sunlight and consequently reduce need for electricity lighting. • Using occupancy sensors (motion detectors), such sensors switch on lights when movement is detected in the surrounding area and switch off when no motion is detected after 15 seconds. • Wall colors should not be ignored, some colors reflect daylight, such as white and cream colors, these reflect sunlight by 60 – 90%.

    16. Energy; What can I do? Issues to be in mind by management and staff: • When replacing all old lamps in an institution area, the following should be considered: • Group re-lamping with new efficient models at once. • Using compact fluorescent lamps (without changing fittings) instead of tungsten lamps. • Fitting reflectors to fluorescent tubes, accordingly the number of tubes needed will be reduced by half. • Fixtures, lamps and lenses should be cleaned every 6 months from dust and grease deposits. • Substituting incandescent lamps in exit signs with compact fluorescent lamps. Such option will save energy by 50 –75%, that is in addition to the fact that fluorescent lamps last 10 –20 times longer. • It is necessary to turn off lights when incandescent lights are not needed and when fluorescent lights will remain off for at least 15 minutes. • Lights should be turned off in restaurants between serving meals and services areas (laundry, stores, and kitchens) between working hours. • Using efficient lamps in areas where lights are expected to be needed for long hours. • Installing dimmer switches that can reduce light intensity to 10 -20 %during the day, there can be used in hallways and lobbies where lights should be on 24 hrs. • Discharging (HID) lamps for outdoor lighting. • Cleaning fixtures more often when they are a part of HVAC systems. • Establishing a regular cleaning program for windows and skylights, this will maintain light reflection to a constant dependable level.

    17. Energy; What can I do? Conserving Energy through Water Heating: Most medium-to-large hotels use boilers to generate hot water or steam for space heating, water heating, and laundry services. For boilers to run at peak efficiency, operators find it necessary to use methods as boiler staging, water chemistry, pumping and boiler controls, fuel air mixtures, burn-to-load ratios, and stack temperatures. Another method to implement is insulation, which can be applied to valves, condensate receiver tanks, and various parts of the boilers. Keeping boiler systems at peak efficiency is important as well, since it will reduce operating costs and environmental impacts. (http://www.ase.org/section/topic/ee_hotels/, retrieved on: October 30 2006) Energy efficiency can be obtained in water heating through the following guidelines (listed in ESCWA 2003) by different groups involved in such operation including investors and management procedures to be taken by investors: • Insulating hot water storage tanks and piping to reduce heat loss. • Evaluating the use of decentralized small water heaters to reduce the peak load of the main water heating system or that of the electric generators, which supply electricity for heating water. • Evaluating and installing as appropriate waste heat recovery systems on large generating units, laundry, etc. • As appropriate, solar water heating systems should be installed for guest rooms, swimming pools, and other services equipment. • For management and staff, the following should be done: • Setting water heaters thermostats at not more than 50 -55 ºC, for guest room water.

    18. Energy; What can I do? • Using a booster heater for higher water temperatures for dishwaters and laundry equipment use. • Minimizing temperature of water used for cleaning utensils (without reducing the temperature below the permissible level). • Adopting a regular boiler tuning program • Adjusting fuel / air ratio to maintain higher efficiencies. • Checking toilets, faucets and showerheads for water leaks and repair immediately. • Using low-flow shower-heads (2 ½ to 3 gallons per minute are recommended) • Checking and maintaining gas boilers and water heaters twice a year to reduce scales and increase efficiency. • Replacing inefficient water heating systems. • Considering water treatment to prevent scaling.

    19. Energy; Where can I get more information? • Guidebook on Energy Efficiency for Hotels, issued by: Alliance to Save Energy, Washington DC and Pelangi Project, Indonesia; available at: http://www.ase.org/section/topic/ee_hotels • Cutting Costs With Energy Efficiency & Conservation: A Guide for Hotels; available at: http://www.flexyourpower.org/ • Switched On: Renewable Energy Opportunities in the Tourism Industry; available at: http://www.unep.org/publications/ • A number of articles about this issue; available at: http://www.greenthehotels.com/eng/publications.htm • Energy Toolkit for Small Hotels; available at: http://www.cha-cast.com/ResourceCenter.html • Sowing the Seeds of Change: An Environmental Teaching Pack for the Hospitality Industry, issued by: International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IH&RA), United Nations Environment Program, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP DTIE) and the International Association of Hotel Schools (EUHOFA International), Paris; available at: http://www.ih-ra.com/marketplace/publications.php Bibliography ESCWA, 2003. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia: A Guide to Efficient Energy Management in the Tourism Sector, United Nations, New York. Sweeting, J. & Sweeting A. 2002. A Practical Guide to Good Practice: Managing Environmental and Social Issues in the Accommodations Sector, issued by: United Nations Environmental Program and The Center of Environmental Leadership in Business. The Official Website of Alliance to Save Energy, Washington DC: http://www.ase.org/section/topic/ee_hotels; retrieved on: October 30 2006. USAID, 1991, New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA) - Egypt and USAID. A Guide for Preliminary Planning and Assessment of Energy Efficient and Environmentally Sound Tourist Villages in Remote Areas of the Sea Coast of Egypt, Cairo.

    20. Water; The Significance of the Topic Hotels usually use water for the following various purposes: • Hot and cold water for bathrooms, kitchen and laundry; • Hot and cold water for toilets; • Cold and hot water for HVAC; • Cold water for drinking; • Cold water for fire fighting. (EUHOFA, IHRA & UNEP 2001) Guest showers, pools, and especially laundry operations account for a considerable share in the hotel consumption of water. Water use in hotels varies depending on geographical location, occupancy, property type and season of the year. The average water use is 218 gallons per occupied room per day. Larger properties use more water due to the water intensive facilities often found in the larger hotels, i.e., pools, laundries and restaurants. Excessive use of water increases the cost of operation, increases electrical energy required for pumps, depletes the water supply and puts extra demands on waste water disposal plants. (Hammer & Townsend 1993)

    21. Water; How would I know that my hotel has a problem? According to the environmental pack issued by EUHOFA, IHRA & UNEP (2001), you need to go through the following checklist of procedures; it will help in identifying the weaknesses points in your hotel in regard to this issue: • Monitoring the quantities of water used in the hotel by different departments (main property, swimming pool, green areas…etc). • Efforts made to save water. • Checking sources of water supply. • Testing water quality. • Checking for any signs of corrosion, high levels of scale or other deposits, or change in pH. • Comparing between water consumption costs and operating costs. • The efforts made to encourage staff to save water during work. • The efforts made to encourage guests to save water during their stay in the hotel. • Checking water distribution system for any leaks, pressure control malfunctions and any other problems. • The possibility of having sub meters to monitor water consumption for each department in the hotel. • Having adequate turnover in water storage tanks to prevent bacteria forming. • Having any increase in water purchase and costs of waste water discharge in the last few years.

    22. Water; What can I do? Since saving water and costs of its consumption is highly demanded, several technologies were developed to achieve such goal. Such technologies for example include: • Ultra Low-Flow Toilets: The idea behind using such kind of toilets is to reduce the water used per flush, typical toilets used between 19 and 26 liters (5-7 gal) per flush, while ultra low-flow toilets uses as little as 3 liters (0.8 gal) per flush. • Toilet Dams or Other Water Displacement Devices: Such tool is also based on using less water at each flush; such devices block part of the tank so that less water is required to fill the toilet following each flush. This can be also obtained by using a plastic bottle filled with water to limit the tank's capacity. Although problems may occur with the need to double flush, water savings from these devices are estimated at about 10 percent. • Low-Flow Showerheads: Low-flow shower heads use less than 9.5 liters (2.5 gal) per minute, which is efficient if compared to typical showerheads that use about 17 to 30 liters (4.5-8 gal) per minute, with no marked reduction in quality or service. • Efficient Faucet Aerators: These devices can easily be installed on the ends of most faucet systems, such devices allow less water to flow through the faucet, and most consumers will not notice a difference. These devices can save between 12 and 65 liters (3.2-17.2 gal) per day. • Landscape Water: The following techniques are the most effective ways to control outdoor water use: • Keeping only native, drought-tolerant plants that can thrive with minimal water on a property (Xeriscaping plants). • Moisture sensors in soils. • Controllers on irrigation systems. (http://www.ase.org/section/topic/ee_hotels/, retrieved on: October 30 2006)

    23. Water; Where can I get more information? • Water Conservation Toolkit for Small Hotels; available at: http://www.cha-cast.com/ResourceCenter.html • A Manual for Water and Waste Management: What the Tourism Industry Can Do to Improve Its Performance, issued by UNEP; available at: http://www.unep.org/publications • Sowing the Seeds of Change: An Environmental Teaching Pack for the Hospitality Industry, issued by: International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IH&RA), United Nations Environment Program, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP DTIE) and the International Association of Hotel Schools (EUHOFA International), Paris; available at: http://www.ih-ra.com/marketplace/publications.php Bibliography • EUHOFA, IHRA & UNEP. 2001. Sowing the Seeds of Change: An Environmental Teaching Pack for the Hospitality Industry, issued by: International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IH&RA), United Nations Environment Program, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP DTIE) and the International Association of Hotel Schools (EUHOFA International), Paris. • Hammer, M. & Townsend, J., 1993, Ecopurchasing in Hotels and Motels: Energy Efficient Equipment, University of Florida. • The Official Website of Alliance to Save Energy, Washington DC: http://www.ase.org/section/topic/ee_hotels; retrieved on: October 30 2006.

    24. Waste; The Significance of the Topic • Hotels are known to produce large quantities of different kinds of waste; such as solid waste, waste water and chemical hazardous waste. Mostly, such kinds of waste are collected in badly designed waste dumps, discarded directly into oceans or rivers, or simply dumped in areas out of sight of guests. Such improper disposal can lead to some serious environmental problems; besides visually degrading a destination, it can lead to water and soil pollution through leaching of contaminants from waste piles. Randomly designed waste dumps might lead to fires, odors, flies and ineffective containment of wastes. The unplanned disposal of toxic items such as paint cans and batteries can severely contaminate water, air and soil resources, threatening the safety of environment and human health • (Sweeting & Sweeting 2002).

    25. Waste; How would I know that my hotel has a problem? According to the environmental pack issued by EUHOFA, IHRA & UNEP (2001), you need to go through the following checklist of procedures; it will help in identifying the weaknesses points in your hotel in regard to this issue: • Monitoring the amounts of waste generated by the hotel under the main waste categories: paper, plastic, aluminum, organic (kitchen and garden), and chemical (hazardous) waste. • Comparing between the different departments of the hotel in regard to the amounts of waste produced. • Checking if any waste separation is taking place. • The efforts made to reduce the amounts of waste produced by the hotel. • Checking the charges of waste disposal if compared to the total operating costs, and tracking any rise in them in the last few years. • Checking if there are any items in the waste stream that have never been used.

    26. Waste; What can I do? Producing great amounts of waste is one of the serious issues related to the operation of hotels. The best solution in this case would be reviewing the amounts of waste produced and costs of disposal. Developing a waste management program is not less important; such program should be based on the 3 R's: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. This comes through the following: • Reducing waste generation through buying products in bulk and with less packaging. • Replacing disposable items with reusable ones as rechargeable batteries, refillable soap and shampoo containers (Sweeting & Sweeting 2002). • Following a serious recycling program, in addition to sorting rubbish or solid waste in clearly marked containers, a procedure that will help both guests and staff in this process. Such containers will be separating solid waste according to the following categories: • Paper • Glass • Metal (Mainly cans) • Plastic (Mainly boxes and detergents containers) • Biological waste and composting • Energy saving lamps • Batteries • Special containers for old oil, toxic waste All these should be then put in kitchen and in hotel disposal site with some specific circumstances to avoid any changes that might happen to the material in the containers.

    27. Waste; What can I do? • This should be then followed by putting and enforcing regulations and standards when inspecting hotels by the ministry of tourism and other concerned authorities. Another basic step is contracting a number of waste disposal companies for toxic waste; these will be responsible and able to dispose such kind of waste properly. • Another procedure is recycling with help of private contractors or local authorities for other kinds of waste. • Some other small scale procedures can make a difference, such as the avoidance of using single portion packages used in kitchens and for detergents.

    28. Waste; Where can I get more information? • Waste Management Toolkit for Small Hotels; available at: http://www.cha-cast.com/ResourceCenter.html • A Manual for Water and Waste Management: What the Tourism Industry Can Do to Improve Its Performance, issued by UNEP; available at: http://www.unep.org/publications • Sowing the Seeds of Change: An Environmental Teaching Pack for the Hospitality Industry, issued by: International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IH&RA), United Nations Environment Program, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP DTIE) and the International Association of Hotel Schools (EUHOFA International), Paris; available at: http://www.ih-ra.com/marketplace/publications.php • Less Garbage Overnight: A Waste Prevention Guide for the Lodging Industry, by: John P. Winter and Sharene L. Azimi; available at: http://www.p2pays.org/ Bibliography • EUHOFA, IHRA & UNEP. 2001. Sowing the Seeds of Change: An Environmental Teaching Pack for the Hospitality Industry, issued by: International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IH&RA), United Nations Environment Program, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP DTIE) and the International Association of Hotel Schools (EUHOFA International), Paris. • Sweeting, J. & Sweeting A. 2002. A Practical Guide to Good Practice: Managing Environmental and Social Issues in the Accommodations Sector, issued by: United Nations Environmental Program and The Center of Environmental Leadership in Business.

    29. Ecopurchasin; Significance / Do I have a problem? The Significance of the Topic There is no doubt that hotels make a purchase of great quantities of different products; these include: cleaning and laundry supplies, food and beverages, equipment, vehicles, office supplies, furniture, bedding and toiletries for guest bathrooms. These products can cause some serious threats to the environment through their manufacture, distribution, use and disposal. More important, purchase decisions can significantly impact the levels of waste produced by a hotel, as well as the potential for local air, water or soil pollution generated through the use or disposal of these products.(Sweeting & Sweeting 2002). How would I know that my hotel has a problem? According to the environmental pack issued by EUHOFA, IHRA & UNEP (2001), you need to go through the following checklist of procedures; it will help in identifying the weaknesses points in your hotel in regard to this issue: • Checking if there are any items that can be replaced by a more environmentally-preferable alternative. • Checking if items purchased were never got used. • Checking if there are suppliers and contractors with an environmental policy. • Checking if there are any contractors who are able to provide more environmentally preferable service. • Checking if there are any efforts were done to reduce packaging and to buy environmentally preferable products whenever possible.

    30. Ecopurchasin; What can I do? • Purchasing products that are certified for their environmental quality as possible. • Buying fair trade products when possible. • Environmentally friendly products cannot always be identified with eco-labels. Working with suppliers will in identifying environmental issues and the best available products. • Ensuring that on-site vendors use environmentally and socially sound practices. • Increasing the awareness of hotel guest about locally produced alternatives to imported goods, as well as a list of local products and services to avoid, such as souvenirs made from endangered species. • Buying products which have a high post consumer recycled content such as paper products. • When possible, buying products of an existing recycling markets. • Buying products with less packaging and in bulk. • Buying local products that will save costs of transport, packaging and storage; and that will also support local economy and community. (Sweeting & Sweeting 2002)

    31. Ecopurchasin; Where can I get more information? • Ecopurchasing in Hotels and Motels; an article by Marie S. Hammer and Jo M. Townsend; available at: http://www.p2pays.org/ • Ecopurchasing Guide for Hotels and Motels; available at: http://www.greenbiz.com/resources/resource/ecopurchasing-guide-hotels-and-motels • Eco-Purchasing Fact Sheet by: Jean Mackay; available at: http://www.auduboninternational.org/e-Source/ Bibliography • EUHOFA, IHRA & UNEP. 2001. Sowing the Seeds of Change: An Environmental Teaching Pack for the Hospitality Industry, issued by: International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IH&RA), United Nations Environment Program, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP DTIE) and the International Association of Hotel Schools (EUHOFA International), Paris. • Sweeting, J. & Sweeting A. 2002. A Practical Guide to Good Practice: Managing Environmental and Social Issues in the Accommodations Sector, issued by: United Nations Environmental Program and The Center of Environmental Leadership in Business.

    32. Chemical Use; Significance / Do I have a problem? • The Significance of the Topic • One of the main reasons behind environmental pollution and contamination of local environment resources is the excessive and improper use of chemical and hazardous wastes in daily operations of hotels, add to this storing and disposing such materials in improper way. Some hotels are causing problems through the use of pesticides, fertilizers and herbicides for gardening and to control insects; this can result in toxic runoff into streams, coastal waters and groundwater. Chemicals used for cleaning guest rooms or in recreational facilities as swimming pools can contaminate local soil and water supplies and may pose a potential hazard to human health. Moreover, depletion of the ozone layer can be caused by leakage of CFCs and HCFCs from refrigerators, air conditioners and other cooling equipment, as well as chemicals used for dry cleaning, in aerosols, fire extinguishers and foams (Sweeting & Sweeting 2002). • How would I know that my hotel has a problem? • According to the environmental pack issued by EUHOFA, IHRA & UNEP (2001), you need to go through the following checklist of procedures; it will help in identifying the weaknesses points in your hotel in regard to this issue:

    33. Chemical Use; What can I do? • Limiting the use of chemical products as possible. • Using natural products as salt, vinegar, and baking soda for cleaning ovens, drains windows and floors. • Using environmentally certified products (as Green Seal, The Nordic Swan and EU Flower). • Using automatic dosing of chemicals for cleaning and swimming pool. • Training staff to use and dispose chemicals in a safe and responsible manner. • The regular monitoring of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, freezers and kitchen cooling equipment to detect and eliminate leakage of ozone-depleting CFCs and HCFCs. • Buying equipments that utilize low-Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP) or zero-ODP chemicals. • In planning landscapes, it is important to plant native plants that require fewer amounts of water and chemicals. • Using compost or other organic substitutes for chemical fertilizer. (Sweeting & Sweeting 2002)

    34. Chemical Use; Where can I get more information? • Hazardous Waste Management Policy; available at: http://www.fhsu.edu/physicalplant/envshazwastepolicy.shtml • Less Garbage Overnight: A Waste Prevention Guide for the Lodging Industry, by: John P. Winter and Sharene L. Azimi; available at: http://www.p2pays.org/ • Waste Management Toolkit for Small Hotels; available at: http://www.cha-cast.com/ResourceCenter.html • A Manual for Water and Waste Management: What the Tourism Industry Can Do to Improve Its Performance, issued by UNEP; available at: http://www.unep.org/publications • Sowing the Seeds of Change: An Environmental Teaching Pack for the Hospitality Industry, issued by: International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IH&RA), United Nations Environment Program, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP DTIE) and the International Association of Hotel Schools (EUHOFA International), Paris; available at: http://www.ih-ra.com/marketplace/publications.php Bibliography • EUHOFA, IHRA & UNEP. 2001. Sowing the Seeds of Change: An Environmental Teaching Pack for the Hospitality Industry, issued by: International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IH&RA), United Nations Environment Program, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP DTIE) and the International Association of Hotel Schools (EUHOFA International), Paris. • Sweeting, J. & Sweeting A. 2002. A Practical Guide to Good Practice: Managing Environmental and Social Issues in the Accommodations Sector, issued by: United Nations Environmental Program and The Center of Environmental Leadership in Business.

    35. Air Quality; The Significance of the Topic Emissions generated by tourism facilities usually include: • Combustion gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, hydrocarbons) from fossil fuel and gas-operated boilers, stoves and generators; • CFCs from refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment; • Halons in fire-extinguishing equipment; • Vapors from dry cleaning solvents; • Vehicle emissions. Indoor air quality depends on the activities and emissions within the building and the sources of pollution surrounding it. Such sources include: • Combustion gases from stoves, boilers and other combustion equipment; • Tobacco smoke; • VOC vapors from cleaning solvents, paints, varnishes, photocopy emissions and pesticides; • Asbestos fibers; • Ozone brought in from the outside; • Dust and particles; • CFCs from refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment; • Radon released from building materials.

    36. Air Quality; The Significance of the Topic • Ignoring indoor air quality result in negative health effects: from headaches and nausea to respiratory irritations and allergic reactions. Long-term exposure (as in the case of hospitality employees) can induce more serious illnesses. One of the most common issues is known as ‘sick building syndrome’, which is associated with continual exposure to fumes from paints, adhesives, varnishes, and chemical emissions from photocopiers, furnishings and fabrics. • Adequate ventilation is critical to enhance indoor air quality. Fresh air is needed to renew oxygen, remove micro-organisms, vapors and odors, as well as excess heat and moisture. • (EUHOFA, IHRA & UNEP 2001)

    37. Air Quality; How would I know that my hotel has a problem? According to the environmental pack issued by EUHOFA, IHRA & UNEP (2001), you need to go through the following checklist of procedures; it will help in identifying the weaknesses points in your hotel in regard to this issue: • Monitoring emissions from boilers and stoves. • Checking if appliances and equipments are serviced regularly. • Checking appliances used are over 10 years old. • Checking if any complaints were received from guests and employees in regard to air quality. • Checking if the property is free from asbestos. • Checking if any efforts were done to find alternatives to CFC's. • Checking if any efforts were done to reduce emissions. • Checking if there are any local initiatives to monitor exterior air quality. • Checking if vehicles are equipped with catalytic converters.

    38. Air Quality; What can I do? The main procedures that can be taken to prevent indoor air quality problems are as follows: • Removing or reducing contamination sources: this can be achieved by prohibiting smoking indoors or restricting it to some areas; locating fresh air intakes away from polluted areas or exhaust vents; installing local exhaust ventilation for machines and operations (photocopiers, printing equipment, laboratory procedures, etc.) that give off odors and contaminants; steam cleaning of carpets and partitions, and vacuuming again with a high-efficiency particulate air filter vacuums; and properly storing all chemicals in an area with exhaust ventilation to the outside. • Increasing rates of ventilations: The rate of air flow in a general office setting should, at a minimum, be 20 cubic feet of air per minute (cfm) per occupant. This recommendation comes from the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard 62-1989. • Maintaining a relative humidity between 30 and 60 percent: this will help providing comfort, and it helps to control mold and mildew growth. • Cleaning and maintaining the HVAC system regularly: this means cleaning and disinfecting duct work, supply diffusers and return vents. They should be cleaned, disinfected and open; make sure the fan is operating properly. (http://www.afscme.org/publications/2824.cfm, retrieved on June 18, 2008)

    39. Air Quality; Where can I get more information? • Indoor Air Quality Reports; available at: http://www.afscme.org/publications/2824.cfm • Indoor Air Quality Issues for Hotels, by Chai–chen Chao; available at: http://ergo.human.cornell.edu/ Bibliography • EUHOFA, IHRA & UNEP. 2001. Sowing the Seeds of Change: An Environmental Teaching Pack for the Hospitality Industry, issued by: International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IH&RA), United Nations Environment Program, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP DTIE) and the International Association of Hotel Schools (EUHOFA International), Paris. • The Official Website of AFSCME - Solving Indoor Air Quality Problems: http://www.afscme.org/publications/2824.cfm, retrieved on June 18, 2008

    40. Noise; The Significance of the Topic • Noise pollution is undesirable sound that is disturbing, annoying and which may be negative to human health. Such sound has many sources; these include: music, traffic, crowds, and workplace-related noise from machines and appliances. • Noise is measured in decibels (dB), which follow a logarithmic scale. This indicates that even a small increase in decibels means a large increase in the magnitude of the sound. • Continuous exposure to intensities of noise can result in health problems; these include: migraines, circulatory disturbances, high blood pressure and ulcers; loss of hearing; direct damage to the ear. Such problems are determined by the level of noise. Moreover, it has its negative consequences on hotels as well; it can reduce the value of the property and lead to the loss of business. It also affects employee productivity and causes conflicts with neighboring businesses and homes. • In hotel, some areas are responsible for generating noise; these are: mechanical rooms with fans, compressors, boilers and generators, kitchens, laundries, delivery and waste output areas including compactors, garages, discotheques and function rooms, lobby areas and bars. • The most noise-sensitive areas in hospitality properties are guestrooms, meeting and conference rooms, and offices. • (EUHOFA, IHRA & UNEP 2001)

    41. Noise; How would I know that my hotel has a problem? According to the environmental pack issued by EUHOFA, IHRA & UNEP (2001), you need to go through the following checklist of procedures; it will help in identifying the weaknesses points in your hotel in regard to this issue: • Verifying national legislation for the maximum limit for noise in the workplace. Noise limits are usually included in occupational health and safety laws. • Checking if guests are complaining regularly about noise; and trying to configure the source of this noise. • Checking if employees are complaining about noise, especially those based in and around kitchens, laundries and maintenance areas. • Checking if any employees have reported health problems that could be linked to high noise intensities. • Checking if equipment and appliances are regularly serviced to maintain low noise levels. • Checking if any efforts were taken to reduce noise. • Trying to identify days and times of the year that are particularly noisy.

    42. Noise; What can I do? According to a report by CertainTeed (2003); noise problems can be avoided or reduced through 3 main procedures: • Replace the sound source with a quieter one. • Block the sound with a solid, heavy material that resists the transmission of sound waves. • Absorb the sound with a light, porous material that soaks up sound waves. The report gives a detailed description about these solutions; more information about it is given in the following section.

    43. Noise; Where can I get more information? • Noise Control in Buildings: Guidelines for Acoustical Problem-Solving (2003); available at: http://www.certainteed.com/certainteed/index.htm. • Noise and Vibration Control Technical Manual (1995); issued by Headquarters, Departments of the Army and the Air Force, Washington DC; available at: http://www.enoisecontrol.com Bibliography • CertainTeed. 2003. Noise Control in Buildings: Guidelines for Acoustical Problem-Solving, CertainTeed Corporation, Pennsylvania. • EUHOFA, IHRA & UNEP. 2001. Sowing the Seeds of Change: An Environmental Teaching Pack for the Hospitality Industry, issued by: International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IH&RA), United Nations Environment Program, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP DTIE) and the International Association of Hotel Schools (EUHOFA International), Paris.

    44. Guests Awareness & Staff Training; Significance / What can I do? • The Significance of the Topic • Facility employees, manager and guests; all should be participating in awareness programs. This is done through informing the employees, training of hotel staff and personnel is a key issue in operation and maintenance stage. Benefits from personnel involvement are based on two issues: motivation and information (ESCWA 2003). • What can I do? • Motivation comes then through giving a sufficient and a clear feedback. Information about such progress achieved in upgrading energy efficiency can be spread by leaflets or newsletters' showing how much energy was used in each facility section compared to earlier periods. These will create a competition between different sections of the hotel, or for hotel chains. • It is also important and effective to involve the facility guests and inform them of the energy management program being implemented, this can be done by carrying out simple action that are presented in posters and flyers available throughout the facility, also brochures regarding positive behaviors to be taken, also efforts done already by the hotel. The awareness level of the guests about the vitality of energy efficiency and sustaining the environment is a basic issue that should be considered as well. • For the information part, informing personnel about how to save energy and how much can be saved will make them more enthusiastic to take a part. Informing personnel can be achieved through the staff meetings, flyers and bulletin boards as well as other interpretation methods as appropriate. More can be achieved through participating in simple activities, which aim at giving awareness about the importance of regulating energy consumption; this can be reinforced by giving prizes for competitions, done for this purpose between the different administrations in the facility.

    45. Guests Awareness & Staff Training; What can I do? / More Info. ? • Moreover, the following procedures can be done by hotel staff: • Front office personnel: When assigning rooms, it should be guaranteed that guests are assigned to adjoining rooms, so that the heating or cooling of occupied rooms act as a buffer or insulator. • Housekeeping: Well-informed housekeepers can contribute to saving energy through some procedures, such as turning off heating and cooling, televisions, closing draperies/shades systems in vacant rooms, limiting the amount of hot water used for cleaning, reporting needed equipment repair (e.g., leaking faucet, malfunctioning air conditioner). • Public areas and services: Public as lobby, meeting rooms, offices, shops, bars and lounges can contribute to efficiency since their energy consumption control is much easier. For example, scheduling meeting functions in rooms that are served by the same space conditioning system; assigning an individual to be responsible for turning the heating and cooling system on or off according to a daily time-of-use schedule for the various function rooms. • (ESCWA 2003) • Where can I get more information? • A Guide to Efficient Energy Management in the Tourism Sector (2003). A report issued by Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia; available at: http://www.escwa.un.org/erdp/ • Bibliography • ESCWA. 2003. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia: A Guide to Efficient Energy Management in the Tourism Sector, United Nations, New York.

    46. Other Environmental Procedures There are some other issues to consider in regard to hotels environmental performance; these include: • Contribution to biodiversity and nature conservation • Contribution to community development • Social issues in the work place • Sustainable design and construction of tourism facilities • Monitoring and documenting environmental performance of hotels and other tourism facilities. • Other relevant issues. Such issues can be found with detailed explanation in the following sources of information: • Sowing the Seeds of Change: An Environmental Teaching Pack for the Hospitality Industry (2001), issued by: International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IH&RA), United Nations Environment Program, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP DTIE) and the International Association of Hotel Schools (EUHOFA International), Paris; available at: http://www.ih-ra.com/marketplace/publications.php • A Practical Guide to Good Practice: Managing Environmental and Social Issues in the Accommodations Sector (2002), issued by: United Nations Environmental Program and The Center of Environmental Leadership in Business. • A Guide to Efficient Energy Management in the Tourism Sector (2003). A report issued by Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia; available at: http://www.escwa.un.org/erdp/

    47. Legislation; Introduction • Environmental Legislations are the legal tools that govern the activities of industries including hotel industry activities. However, there is an increase in what is called voluntary commitments which could increase the ability of hotels to improve and compete in the market. • Voluntary commitments or self regulatory mechanisms include: eco-labeling systems, corporate codes of conduct and environmental certification schemes such as EMAS. • EMAS, the European Community Eco-Management and Audit Scheme, is a tool through which the environmental legislations and the corporate self-regulations can be linked. • In order for a hotel to obtain an environmental certification, environmental legislations of the country need to be abide by the hotel. • The lack of awareness among Jordanian hotels regarding environmental legislations is identified through the activities of the GREEN-TAS Project as mentioned in several reports and documents. Therefore, it is necessary for hotels to be aware of environmental legislations and to follow them before considering obtaining environmental certifications.

    48. Legislation; Importance of Legislations to Environmental Performance in Hotels It is important to consider environmental legislations before building hotels and similar projects and when thinking about obtaining environmental certifications for several reasons: • Comply with the legislations to obtain a license to build and operate. • Comply with the legislations to obtain environmental certifications. • Protect the environment and conserve natural resources. • Increase customer confidence- improves business.

    49. Legislation; Legislation Hierarchy in Jordan • The Constitution • Laws • Regulations • Instructions • Standards

    50. Legislation; Environmental Legislations The following environmental legislations are found to be relevant to environmental performance in hotels in Jordan: •  Environment Protection Law • Regulations: • Licensing • Natural Reserves & Parks. • Soil Protection. • Management, Transport and Handling of Harmful & Hazardous Substances. • Management of Solid Waste. • Air Protection. • Marine Environment & Coastal Protection. • Instructions: • Instructions for Monitoring and Control of Ozone Depleting Substances. More details are available in PDF format.