Chapter 2 Personality: Characteristics that produce consistency and uniqueness in a person”. • Personality makes us unique from others. • Personality leads to consistency in our behavior in different situations and over extended period of time. • Psychodynamic Approach to Personality • Personality is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which people have little awareness and control. Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality: (Personality is based on unconscious forces) Unconscious: part of personality that contains the memories, knowledge, beliefs, feelings, drives etc, of which the individual is not aware. Unconscious provides safe haven for recollection of threatening events Dreams, slips of tongue and fantasies are the roads to unconscious. The unseen mass of floating iceberg Pre-conscious: part of unconscious which contains material that is not threatening and can be easily brought to mind, e.g., 2+2=4
Id: It is the unorganized, inborn part of personality. It tries to reduce tension created by hunger, sex, aggression. Id operates on psychic energy. Id operates according to “Pleasure Principle” Id wants satisfaction at any cost Ego: It’s the second component of personality. It works on “Reality Principle” It satisfies desires of Id but looking at reality, and to maintain safety of individual and adjust him in society. Super Ego: It represents rights and wrongs and standards of society. It controls the impulses of Id by making us feel guilty. According to Sigmund, Freud, the Ego must mediate, Between Id and Super Ego, in order to maintain balance, personality
Trait Approach to Personality • Trait: Unique Characteristics of human behavior that remain same in different situations. E.g., smart, friendly, self-centered, proud etc. • Trait Theories of Personality: • All port's Trait Theory • Cattle's 16 Personality Factors • Eysenck’s Three Dimensions of Personality • Five Factor Theory of Personality
Allport’s Trait Theory • Allport found 4500 terms (words) to describe traits of personality. • He divided all these traits (characteristics) in to three main categories: • Cardinal Traits: Traits that dominate an individual’s whole life, often the person becomes known specifically for these traits. E.g., “UsmanGhani, Omer Farooq, Sadiq, Ameen, malangg” etc. • Central Traits: They usually number from five to ten in any one person. Terms such as intelligent, honest, shy and anxious are considered central traits. • Secondary Traits: appear only in certain situations or under specific circumstances. Some examples would be “getting excited when speaking to a group” or “impatient while waiting in line”.
Eysenck’s Three Dimensions of Personality 1-Introversion/Extraversion: • Introversion (internal) Extroversion (external) • Introvert Person: quite, reserved and alone • Extrovert Person: social, living in group 2-Neuroticism/Emotional Stability: • Neuroticism refers to an individual’s tendency to become upset or emotional, while stability refers to the tendency to remain emotionally constant. 3-Psychoticism • Individuals who are high on this trait tend to have difficulty dealing with reality and may be antisocial, hostile, non-empathetic.
Openness to experience Independent---Conforming Imaginative-----Practical Preference of variety---Preference of routine Conscientiousness Careful---Careless Disciplined---Impulsive Organized---Disorganized 3. Extraversion Talkative—quite Fun-loving---Sober Sociable---Retiring The big Five Personality Traits • 4. Agreeableness • Sympathetic---Fault-finding • Kind---Cold • Appreciative---Unfriendly • 5. Neuroticism • Stable---Tense • Calm---Anxious • Secure---Insecure
Behavioral Approach of Skinner • Similar reinforcing situations cause similarity in behavior. • If you change the reinforcing situation, you can change the personality trait. Social Cognitive Approaches • Personality is based on internal thoughts, feeling, expectations and values. • Personality is also based on observation of other’s behavior. • Self-Efficacy (Self-Belief): people with high self-efficacy have higher aspirations and greater stamina to work and get success. • How we develop self-efficacy? We develop it by looking at past experiences of successes and failures.
Biological/Evolutionary Approaches/Neurscience • Minnesota study showed that leadership is related with genes. • Being active, thrilling, easily upset and calm, these traits are also related to genes. Humanistic Approach • This perspective emphasize that people have inborn goodness and motivation to grow towards higher functioning. • People have need for self-actualization, a state of self-fulfillment in which people are at their highest potential.