Welcome to Week 3 of Functional Curriculum: SPED 534 • Quiz #1 Next week: 10/19 • Article Review #2: Due 11/2 • Quiz #2: 11/9 • Ability Awareness Lesson Plan: Due 11/1 • Please Get Started on the Entry Activities #1 & 2.
Today’s Agenda • Review Entry Activity • Review Last Class • Review Article Reviews • Prompting • Specialized Teaching Strategies
Instructional Sequence • Model: Structured, Clear Be direct with multiple examples & non-examples • Lead: High levels of opportunities to respond (OTR), success • Individual Work - with clear teacher feedback-make sure students get it • Group work -activities, experiments, etc. -chance to discover application to real world • Test - Make sure they have skill fluency
Instructional Methods • Students with intellectual disabilities learn best when instructional methods are explicit, systematic, and derived from empirical research such as the following practices (Heward, 2003)
Heward, 2003 • Assess each student’s present levels of performance to help identify and prioritize most important instructional targets. • Define and task-analyze the new knowledge or skills to be learned • Design instructional methods and activities so the student has frequent opportunities for active student response in the form of guided and independent practice • Use mediated scaffolding (provide and then fade prompts so student can respond to natural occurring stimuli)
Heward, 2003 continued • Provide systematic consequences for student performance in the form of contingent reinforcement, instructional feedback, and error correction. • Incorporate fluency-building activities into lessons • Incorporate strategies for promoting generalization and maintenance of newly learned skills • Conduct direct and frequent measurements of student performance, and use those data to instructional decisions.
Teaching Applications: Prompts • Defined: • Any antecedent stimulus ADDED to the presentation that increases the likelihood of correct responding. • Examples: • Verbal, gesture, physical, embedded (visual, auditory) • Modeling • Precorrection
What makes a good prompt? • Increases likelihood of correct responding • Focuses attention on relevant features of task (Sd) • Ease of delivery • Ease of removal across trials • Good prompts are determined by the demands of the task AND the presenting skills of the learner. • As weak as possible (least intrusive) • Should be faded as rapidly as possible
In-Class Activities 3 & 4 • Get together with a partner who reviewed a different article that you reviewed and answer the questions. • Do this with another partner who reviewed a different article than you.
Add relevant & remove irrelevant triggers Sound Instructional Design Teach alternative that is more efficient Sound Instructional Delivery Add effective & & remove ineffective reinforcers Effective Response to Student behavior Neutralize/ eliminate setting events
Antecedent Strategies • Time Delay • Constant (CTD; Miracle et al., 2001) • Progressive (Wolery et al., 1992) • Prompting Systems • Gestural, verbal, pre-recorded auditory prompts, pictorial prompts, model prompts, physical prompts, mixed prompts • System of Least Prompts (or least-to-most prompting • Most-to-Least Prompts
Establishing Stimulus Control using… • Time delay: • begin with a prompt that works and then increase the DELAY between presentation of the target stimulus and the added prompt • fixed • Progressive • Sd +Prompt response • Sd ….Prompt response • Sd ….response
Constant Time Delay (CTD) Commonly used to teach single, discrete behaviors such as sight words and naming objects : • Attention Cue: “Get Ready” • Task Direction: target stimulus + “read this” • Delay period: Pause 4 to 5 seconds • Effective Prompt: verbal, gestural, etc. • Prompt must have worked in the past/ know that prompt works • Ex: Teacher reading the sign followed by student imitating teacher’s words • First several trials use zero-second delay period to provide initial instruction • Ex: “Read the sign” & immediately say “walk” • After initial trials, insert delay period
Progressive Time Delay • Similar to CTD, but more effective for students with severe disabilities • Difference is: gradually increases the time delay period between the direction and the prompt • Go from zero-second to 1-s (for several trails), then 2-s (for several trials, then 3-s, etc…. • Because delay period is gradually increased, more likely that the student will not be lost between direction and prompt
Guidelines for Selecting Prompts • 1) Select the least intrusive, effective prompt • 2) Combine prompts if necessary • 3) select natural prompts and those related to the behavior • 4) Provide only after students are attending • 5) Provide in a supportive, instructive manner before response • 6) Fade as soon as possible • 7) Plan fading procedures beforehand
Prompt Examples:What prompts might be useful? • Natural Sd Target Behavior Consequence • (Prompt) • Teaching cursive writing • Teaching swallowing • Teaching Carl how to ask to enter a wall ball game. • Teaching Emily to move from one task to another without help. • Teaching Phil to wait at snack without grabbing food.
Fading • Defined: Stimulus Fading • The gradual reduction or removal of a prompt. • Fading is a process for transferring stimulus control. • Examples: • Change in physical features (dashed lines) • Change in specificity of verbal prompts (“pick up the screwdriver”…to… “what’s next”) • Time delay (“Prompt+Sd”….to… “Prompt….Sd”)
Fading Prompts • Increasing Assistance (Least-to-Most Prompts)—start with least intrusive and add more intrusive if necessary. • Graduated Guidance (Hand-over-hand, physical guidance)—reducing full guidance to “shadowing”. • Time Delay—wait several seconds before prompting to allow student to respond. • Decreasing Assistance (Most-to-Least Prompts)—move to less intrusive prompt when behavior occurs reliably • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IwaqAkwbd_w&feature=mfu_in_order&list=UL
System of Least Prompts • AKA: least-to-most prompting OR least intrusive prompting OR increasing assistance • Uses a brief waiting period • Then, present hierarchy of increasingly intrusive prompts (minimal prompt to maximum prompt) • e.g., gestural, verbal, partial physical, full physical • Provide a prompt on each trial with only the minimum intensity necessary to get the behavior to occur • Most commonly used for teaching chained tasks (Doyle et al., 1988)
Example: Teaching how to make coffee • Work with a partner and do the following: 1. Task analysis of steps to complete 2. Determine a least-to-most hierarchy of prompts Example: • No prompt (time delay for 5 seconds) • Indirect verbal prompt (“what’s next?”) • Direct verbal prompt (“Do ____”) • Partial physical prompt (nudge hand) • Fully physical assistance (fully guide hand)
Most-to-Least Prompts • Opposite of the system of least prompts • AKA: Decreasing assistance procedure • Simultaneously providing target stimulus AND most intrusive prompt on the first set of trials • Eliminates most errors that tend to occur in early learning trials. • Commonly used with individuals with very severe/profound disabilities—start with full physical with verbal direction
How would you fade these prompts? • Verbal prompt “move it to the tens” during two digit addition to prompt carrying. • Verbal prompt “ask nicely” when prompting Elsie to ask for toys/food, etc. • Physical prompt “touch on arm” as student points to communication board. • Gesture prompt, pointing to the correct color when asked to touch “yellow, etc” • Embedded prompt, dashed lines for writing
Teaching Applications:Shaping • Defined • Teaching new behaviors through differential reinforcement of successive approximations of correct responding. • Differential reinforcement for shaping means that responses that meet a certain criterion are reinforced, while those that do not meet the criterion are not. • The Sd and reward are constant. What changes is the rule for delivering the reward. The goal is to improve the precision of the new skill.
Response Shaping • 1. Behavior is present, but not fluent in the presence of the “signal” • 2. Focus on CONSEQUENCES -requires powerful reinforcers -use differential reinforcement • 3. Systematic reinforcement of successive approximations toward the target • behavior -specify dimensions of the target/goal behavior -reinforce slight improvements/changes -takes time -avoid practicing errors
Establishing Stimulus Control: Teaching New Behaviors Shaping: Students learn new things when a teacher “shapes” an existing response into the desired behavior. Advantages of shaping: • faster than waiting for a correct response • learner succeeds at a high rate • still kind of slow because you are waiting for the learner
Designing Successful Shaping Programs • Identify the terminal behavior (end result) • Identify the initial behavior • Identify intermediate behaviors • Determine the size of steps toward the goal • Reinforce successive approximations of the behavior • Monitor progress • Example student accessing a switch
Shaping Example • Problem behavior: Students are off-task about 80% of the time when working with a partner. Off-topic conversation occurs and work is not completed. • Define the terminal behavior. • Define the initial behavior. • What will our “successive approximations” be?
Shaping:How would you use shaping to.. • Develop skill of saying “thank you” (in different ways) to peers. • Develop skill of reading third grade material at 150 words correct per minute. • Develop ability of a pre-schooler to stay in morning circle for 10 min without screaming
Chaining • A procedure to teach complex skills. • Reinforce combinations of simple behaviors so they become an integrated, whole. • Based on “task analysis” logic • Requires a “task” that is organized into a sequence of “responses.” Each of the responses serves as a “link” in “chain of behavior” • Main idea • The reward at the end of a chain will maintain all the other responses in the chain. The goal is to teach that each step has an Sd-> R. Each R generates a new Sd until the final step which ends with a Sr+ (reward). • Three basic approaches • Total Task Chaining • Forward chaining • Backward chaining
Chaining for multiple-step behaviors, Total Task • Total Task Training: • Instruction begins by starting with the first step in the chain and teaching each successive step in order until the chain of responses is completed. • Successful with all sorts of chained tasks • Works best if the chain is not too long (chained tasks can be subdivided or a single training trial can be too lengthy). • Main advantage: all teaching opportunities are used (each step is taught each time) and the task is completed. • May produce faster learning than other chaining methods. • More natural approach than the other options
Forward Chaining • Begin instruction by starting with the student performing any learned steps in order up to the first unmastered response, at which point instruction occurs. • Remainder of chain completed by teacher or by student with assistance • Useful with many self-care routines and chained academic tasks (e.g., use of number line, telephone dialing, calculator use, etc.) • May be stigmatizing when assistance with unlearned part of the task is obvious…so think of how to do this and respect student’s dignity
Forward Chaining • Student does FIRST STEP, teacher does the rest of chain. • Keep adding steps until student completes entire chain. • Reinforce student for completing the desired number of steps requested by the teacher. • Useful when prompting is difficult. Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V1qHbhrVeE0
Backward Chaining • Backward • Instruction begins by helping the student perform the entire chain up until the last step of the chain, at which point instruction occurs. • Useful with many self-care routines • Advantage over forward chaining: student is being assisted through the task, completes the task quickly, and gets reinforcement early in learning. • May also be stigmatizing, respect student’s dignity • With all of these chaining strategies reinforcement is given quickly (e.g., praise) after each response and again at the end of the chain (e.g., a short break)
Backward Chaining • Teacher does all but last step, student completes LAST STEP. • Keep adding steps until student completes entire chain • Reinforce student for completing the desired number steps requested bythe teacher. • Often used with functional skills • Student can perform steps with prompts. Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LbBj4Tzi9CQ
Visual Modality Strategies • Visual Supports -Use of visual symbols & objects • Visual Schedules • Activity Boards • Rule Scripts/ Social Stories • Video Modeling
Checklist for individualization of visual schedules Determine Form of Representation • Object that will be used in activity • Object that is symbolic of activity/area • Photograph • Icon • Picture/word combination • Single word • Phrases or sentences • For more information go to http://www.teacch.com/
Determine Length of Visual Schedule • One item at a time, signifying transition • Two items, signifying first—then sequence • Three or four items, up to an hour • 2 hours • Half day • Full day
Determine presentation format • One item at a time • Left to right sequence • Top to bottom sequence • Multiple rows
Determine ways to manipulate the schedule • Carry object to be used • Carry visual cue to be matched (in basket, box, pocket, on VELCRO) • Turn over visual cue on schedule as completed • Mark off visual cue on schedule as completed
Determine location of schedule • Teacher takes schedule information to student • Stationary schedule in central location on table • Stationary schedule in central location on shelf or wall • Portable schedule: “pull-off” segment of schedule • Portable schedule: on clipboard • Portable schedule: in notebook
Determine initiation of the use of the schedule • Teacher takes schedule information to student • Student goes to schedule with transition symbol: • From same room, schedule within view • From a variety of locations • Student travels to schedule using verbal cue • From same room, schedule within view • From a variety of locations • Student spontaneously checks schedule
TEACCH • Treatment and Education of Autistic and Communication related handicapped CHildren -http://www.teacch.com/ -Established in the early 1970s by Eric Schopler -Structured Teaching Model -Physical organization, scheduling, visual (picture and color) approach, use of reinforcement strategies
Specialized Teaching Strategies • Visual modality strategies • Visual supports, visual schedules, activity boards, rule scripts, video modeling, • Task analysis & chaining • Forward, backward, interrupted • Discrete teaching trials • Prompting systems, time-delay, • Antecedent & Consequence strategies
Chained response skills vs discrete response skills • Chained: multi-step behaviors • E.g. sweeping the floor, playing UNO, ordering food • Discrete: stand alone (e.g., naming people, matching numbers to quantities, reading words) • It is sometimes hard to distinguish the difference, depending on the learner
Decide whether these objectives include chained or discrete behaviors • Following the use of the toilet, Marc will wash his hands by completing 8 of 10 task steps independently • When asked to circle a word (e.g., nap, mop, map) that matches a picture on a worksheet, Marc will correctly circle the word 75% of the worksheet for two probes in a row • When given a slant board to hold his papers and a template to limit the range of writing, Marc will print all of the letters of the alphabet from a model 100% of the time on two probes in a row. • During lunch time at school, Marc will complete 10 of the 12 steps independently: get in line, go to cafeteria….etc….and return to the classroom.
Discrete Trial Training (DTT) • Strategy based on ABA principles • Breaking skills down into smaller components and teaching those smaller sub-skills individually • Mass Trials and Repeated Practice • Use of prompting when necessary Leaf, R., & McEachin, J. (1999). A Work In Progress. New York, New York: DRL Books Green, G., Luce, S., & Maurice, C. (1996). Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Autism: A Manual for Parents and Professionals. Austin, Texas: Pro-Ed. Smith, T. (2001). Discrete Trial Training in the Treatment of Autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16(2), 86-92.
“Discrete Trial” • Initial Instruction (“Touch your nose”) • A prompt or cue given by the teacher to help the child respond correctly (Teacher points to child’s nose) • A response given by the child (Child touches nose) • An appropriate consequence (“Nice job touching your nose” + sticker) • Pause between consecutive trials (1-5 seconds before next trial)