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New York, New York

New York, New York. By Shaun Woo. Ground Zero: A New Beginning… Democracy? (sort of). History. The area now known as New York City first attracted settlers after Henry Hudson’s voyage of 1609. The settlement was named New Amsterdam in 1626.

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New York, New York

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  1. New York, New York By Shaun Woo

  2. Ground Zero: A New Beginning… Democracy? (sort of)

  3. History • The area now known as New York City first attracted settlers after Henry Hudson’s voyage of 1609. • The settlement was named New Amsterdam in 1626. • On September 6, 1664, Charles II seized New Amsterdam and renamed it New York. • New York City was under British occupation until 1783. • New York City was the capital of the United States from 1785 to 1790. • Since 1800, New York City has been ranked #1 among the largest U.S. cities. Eisenstadt, Peter. Encyclopedia of New York State. 2005

  4. New York City Today • NYC is the most populated city in the United States (Eisenstadt, Peter. Encyclopedia of New York State. 2005, p.1062). • Annual budget of over 40 billion dollars <http://www.ibo.nyc.ny.us/iboreports/understandingbudget.pdf> • In 2001, 20 million tourists spend at least one night in the city (Eisenstadt, Peter. Encyclopedia of New York State. 2005, p. 1570) • In 2002, international and domestic visitors to the city spent more than $14 billion (Eisenstadt, Peter. Encyclopedia of New York State. 2005, p.1570) • There are over 2,000 bridges in the city, 76 over water (Eisenstadt, Peter. Encyclopedia of New York State. 2005, p. 208)

  5. Demographics • As of 2000: • New York City’s population: 8,008,300. • New York State’s population: 18,976,500. • Manhattan is the third largest borough behind Brooklyn and Queens. • 1,668,938 people below the poverty line. • Unemployment rate in New York City is 8.3%. • (Nathan & Gates, 2005 New York Statistical Yearbook)

  6. Demographics (cont.) • Caucasians: 3,576,385 • Hispanics: 2,160,554 • African Americans: 2,129,762 • Asians: 787,047 • Other ethnic groups (not including American Indian and Alaskan Native or Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander): 1,074,406 • (Nathan & Gates, 2005 New York Statistical Yearbook)

  7. Voters! • 4,507,433 registered voters in NYC (Nathan & Gates, 2005 New York Statistical Yearbook) • 2,991,140 registered democrats • 566,782 registered republicans • 2,459,653 votes cast in the 2004 Presidential election (Nathan & Gates, 2005 New York Statistical Yearbook) • 33.3% voter turnout in 2002 (Encyclopedia of New York State, p.1646) • (Nathan & Gates, 2005 New York Statistical Yearbook)

  8. Government Structure • Mayor-council form of government • Mayor • Chief executive • Elected to four year terms • Appoints department heads and deputy mayor • City Council • Legislative body of the city • Composed of 51 council members, who represent the number of districts in NYC • Two year term

  9. Government Structure <http://www.nyc.gov/html/om/html/orgchart/org_chart.html>

  10. Thesis • The reconstruction of Ground Zero is a poignant reminder of the tragedy of September 11th for New Yorkers and Americans alike. The project must inevitably appease the public because the events affected so many people. However, the World Trade Center site is privately owned by a government corporation and a private real estate investor, which nullifies public opinion. In the end, the decision-making process falls into the hands of a multifaceted group, which includes the mayor of New York City and governor of New York State. Although the citizenry will not have an opportunity to vote, by pressuring the government officials involved through various nonpartisan and nonprofit organizations; coalitions; media outlets; and the prospect of negative publicity, the public will without a doubt influence the rebuilding of Ground Zero.

  11. World Trade Center: a short history • Construction began in 1966 and officially ended in 1973. • Designed by Minoru Yamasaki (1912-1986) • Constructed and operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. • Six weeks before 9/11, Larry Silverstein signed a 99-year commercial lease • Both towers stood 110 stories high (1,350 ft.) • In the beginning, the towers were criticized vehemently by the public and by elite architects. Overtime, the public began to warm up to the towers. • 1.2 million cubic yards of excavated rubble from World Trade Center site was used to create the landfill that now lies underneath Battery Park City. • More than 40,000 men and women worked at WTC (Height of Ambition, NY Times, p. 1) Eisenstadt, Peter. Encyclopedia of New York State. 2005

  12. September 11, 2001 • “The worst terrorist attack ever to occur on US soil…” (Eisenstadt, Peter. Encyclopedia of New York State. 2005, p. 1395) • 2,749 people were killed (Eisenstadt, Peter. Encyclopedia of New York State. 2005, p.1396). • An estimated 14,000-16,500 persons who had been in the WTC at the time were able to escape (Eisenstadt, Peter. Encyclopedia of New York State. 2005, p. 1396). • 343 New York City firefighters, 84 Port Authority employees, and 23 New York City police officers lost their lives (Eisenstadt, Peter. Encyclopedia of New York State. 2005, p. 1397). • Canton Fitzgerald, a brokerage firm, lost 658 employees; Marsh and McLennan, a financial services, lost 295 employees (Eisenstadt, Peter. Encyclopedia of New York State. 2005, p.1397). • 9/11 destroyed 13.4 million square feet of office space. • 4% of Manhattan’s total office space was destroyed • 1,300 businesses were affected. • 4 of these 31 businesses occupied 1,000,000 square feet of office space or more (e.g. American Express, Merrill Lynch, Morgan Stanley). • <http://www.buildings.com/Articles/detail.asp?ArticleID=341>

  13. Rebuilding Ground Zero • “The rebuilding of the WTC site will be among the most closely watched and widely debated construction projects in the nation’s history, and one in which the general public has had, if not a vote, certainly a voice.” (Eisenstadt, Peter. Encyclopedia of New York State. 2005, p.1401)

  14. Who’s Behind the Rebuilding Process? • Governor Pataki • Mayor Bloomberg • Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) • Created by Governor Pataki and then-Mayor Giuliani to help plan and coordinate the redevelopment and revitalization of Lower Manhattan • The LMDC is a joint State-City corporation governed by a 16-member Board of Directors, half appointed by the Governor of New York and half by the Mayor of New York. • Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) • Founded by New York and New Jersey in 1921 • 12 member board of commissioners; 6 appointed by each state governor • In 2001, it had a a budget of 4.6 billion dollars and 7,200 employees (Eisenstadt, Peter. Encyclopedia of New York State. 2005, p.1225) • Larry Silverstein, the commercial leaseholder of the WTC site

  15. WTC site plan • Freedom Tower • 1,776 ft. • 2.6 million square ft. of office space • Tower 2 • 78 stories, 1,254 ft. • Tower 3 • 71 stories, 1,115 ft. • Tower 4 • 61 stories, 947 ft. • 7 World Trade Center • 52 stories, 741 ft. • Tower 5 • T.B.A. • World Trade Center memorial • Reflecting Absence http://www.wtc.com/inner_page.aspx?id=12

  16. “Listening to the City” = Democracy In-Action! • On July 20, 2002, 4,300 people attended a town meeting that “gave participants an opportunity to help shape the redevelopment of Lower Manhattan and the creation of a permanent memorial to the victims of 9/11” • Organized by the Civic Alliance to Rebuild Downtown New York, a coalition of more than 85 civic, business, environmental, community, university and labor groups. • Supported by the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation http://www.listeningtothecity.org/

  17. “Listening to the City” (cont.) • Organization of event • Participants sat in a 10-to-12 person round-table discussion, each led by a trained facilitator. • Each table had a networked, wireless laptop computer that served as “electronic flip-charts” that recorded ideas generated by the table. • These ideas would then be transmitted to a “theme team,” which was composed of volunteers and AmericaSpeaks staff that identified the strongest ideas and reported them back to all the participants. • Each participant was given a wireless polling keypad to vote on questions and the results were displayed immediately on an overhead screen. • 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. • Participation was free included breakfast, lunch and beverages. Kosher and vegetarian meals were available. • First 5,000 to register were admitted. • Services included • Sign language and simultaneous spoken translations; facilitators who spoke Spanish and Chinese; foreign language, Braille and large-print copies of important discussion materials • Day-care center available

  18. “Listening to the City” (cont.) • Participants: • Ethnicity • 67% Caucasian • 12% Asian American • 7% African American • Age • 45% 65 years and older • 27% 20-34 years old • Income • 17% earned less than 25,000 • 21% earned between 25,000-49,999 • 13% earned more than 150,000 • Location • 46% Manhattan • 5% out of state • 1% out of country • Other facts • 8.9% had a family member who was a 9/11 victim • 19.7% are survivors of the events of 9/11 • 21.5% became displaced/unemployed as a result of 9/11 • 6.2% were rescue or recovery workers • 41.4% worked in Lower Manhattan • 23.6% lived in Lower Manhattan http://www.listeningtothecity.org/

  19. “Listening to the City” (cont.) • “It looks like Albany” • The LMDC and PANYNJ unveiled six concept plans for the rebuilding of WTC site and the surrounding area • The public quickly refuted all the designs. • Designs were scraped. • Public suggestions • Office space and retail development needed to boost the neighborhood’s economy • “I worry that decisions about space allocation will be made based in a 99-year lease agreement the [Port Authority] signed, and this does not…meet the actual needs of New Yorkers” –A participant • WTC site designs need to be memorable • Improved transportation to attract people to downtown • Provide low, moderate and middle-income housing • Environmentally friendly • Reduce car and traffic. Encourage alternative vehicles such as bicycles and public transportation • Public involvement directly led to second design of WTC site and memorial http://www.listeningtothecity.org/

  20. Democratic Process? • LMDC, PANYNJ, and Mr. Silverstein have rights to rebuilding site. • Governor and Mayor have veto-like power over those who are rebuilding site. • Public influences all of the above • Listening to the City • Nonprofit and nonpartisan organizations such as VOICES, WTC United, Take Back the Memorial, September’s Mission, and Families of September 11. • Coalitions such as the Civic Alliance. • “We cannot and will not allow profit margins and financial interests to be put ahead of public interest in expediting the rebuilding of the site of the greatest tragedy on American soil.” –Governor Pataki (Cooper)

  21. Reasons for reconstruction delays • “The combination of big money, prime real estate, bottomless grief, artistic ego, and dreams of legacy transformed ground zero into a mosh pit of stakeholders banging heads over billions in federal aid, tax breaks and insurance proceeds.” – Daniel Libeskind, master planner of WTC site (The Hole in the City’s Heart, p. 2) • Conflicting interests • Larry Silverstein and PANYNJ wants to make area profitable, develop an area that will succeed in the long-term, and also appease the public • Governor Pataki and Mayor Bloomberg trying to appease public and private investors • Creates turmoil by overruling LMDC, PANYNJ and Larry Silverstein • Disputes over designs • Entities involved hardly ever come to a consensus • Governor, mayor, PANYNJ and Mr. Silverstein all have different visions • Designs have undergone three changes • First change because of public discontent i.e. “Listening to the City” • Second change because of safety concerns • Third design unveiled in 2005/2006

  22. Reconstruction delays (cont.) • Mourning families • Some want entire site dedicated to 9/11 • Name issue hinders construction of 9/11 memorial • Former Mayor Giuliani endorses bigger memorial site • Costs • Memorial designs were temporarily discarded by Bloomberg because cost were $1 billion. • Insurance Companies • 9 companies owe $2.1 billion to Silverstein Properties and PANYNJ (www.builditnow.com) • A lot of money invested • Freedom Tower—$2.2 billion • World Trade Center PATH Terminal—$2.2 billion • World Trade Center Memorial Complex—$740 million • Symbol of post 9/11 America

  23. New York City Representative government Mayor-council form of government Mayor has executive authority Big Budget Over $40 billion annually Ethnically diverse Great Architecture Empire State Building Statue of Liberty Rockefeller Center Freedom Tower? Center of modern world Athens Direct Democracy Boule consisted of 500 persons from 10 tribes Under Pericles, “what was nominally a democracy became in his hands government by the first citizen.” (Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War 2.65.1-11) “A man who wanted to direct Athenian policy had to persuade the citizens…if he held office as general…that might add weight to what he said, but it gave him no advantage beyond that” (Robinson, p. 203) Delian League Money via tribute and taxes from Athens’ allies “We throw open our city to the world, and never by alien acts exclude foreigners”— Pericles (Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War 2.37-42) Parthenon Center of Greek world Evident through the enormous amount of information we have about Athens i.e. primary and historical documents, arts, architecture, etc. New York and Athens: Two Great Democratic Metropolises

  24. “Listening to the city” process The six concept plans were unveiled several days before event Two day event (July 20 and 22, 2002) Altogether 4,500 people attended Between July 29 and August 12, 2002, there was a online dialogue that allowed people to express opinions. Total participants: 818 people. Participants were informed and could vote at the event. 9 a.m.- 4 p.m. Anyone could attend. Though limiting spacing available (5,000 people) Participants diverse in age, race, income, occupation, and hometowns. Charter reform process Reform proposed in August 2006. Between September and October, three meetings (9/5/06, 10/3/06 and 10/12/06) were held to inform the citizens about the charter reform. One meeting was held at Skidmore College on October 30, 2006. The meetings were used to inform. Participants could not vote. Meetings usually lasted for a couple of hours. Open to the public. On November 7, 2006, only citizens could vote. “Listening to the City” vs. Saratoga Spring’s charter reform:some similarities and differences

  25. Conclusion • Progress after five years? • PANYNJ now has responsibility to build Path station, memorial and two of five towers, which includes the Freedom Tower • Mr. Silverstein unveiled designs of Towers 2, 3, and 4 in 2006 • Memorial cost impedes construction • LMDC disbanding by January 2007; PANYNJ to take over responsibilities • Governor Pataki’s tenure ending January 2007 • Mayor Bloomberg to take over as chairman of the World Trade Center Memorial Foundation

  26. Conclusion (cont.) • Democracy Effective? • “Listening to the City” productive and led to change • But there has not been a similar town hall meeting since, while two new designs have been revealed • Project is a government and private affair • Rebuilding has not started because of layered bureaucracy and number of entities involved. • Public has powerful voice • Pataki’s plan to use rebuilding of Ground Zero to gain momentum for possible presidential campaign may backfire. • Yet to be seen if public’s interests will be appeased (depends on rebuilding and final designs are not fully complete) • The process of reconstructing Ground Zero compares to a representative government. The government represents the public’s interests in a process that involves private entities. • So far, the process has been ineffective because construction has not started on any of the projects other than on Tower 7, which was built by Larry Silverstein’s company without government interference.

  27. References • Bagli, Chalres V. “Ground Zero Still in Limbo as Talks Fail.” New York Times 31 March 2006: B1. • Bagli, Charles V. and Cardwell, Diane. “Bloomberg is Set to Take Reins of 9/11 Memorial Foundation.” New York Times 4 October 2006: A1. • Build It Now Campaign. <http://www.builditnow.com/main.cfm?actionId=globalShowStaticContent&screenKey=insurance&show=background> • Christine Lidbury and Frank Posillico. “Understanding New York City’s Budget: A Guide” <http://www.ibo.nyc.ny.us/iboreports/understandingbudget.pdf> • Cooper, Michael. “Square One at Ground Zero.” New York Times16 March 2006: B4. • Eisenstadt, Peter, ed. The Encyclopedia of New York State. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2005. • Dunlap, David W. “Downtown Rebuilding Agency Says it is no Longer Needed.” New York Times 26 July 2006: B2. • Dunlap, David W. “9/11 Faces Setback Over Names.” New York Times 27 June 2006: B1. • Government Chart <http://www.nyc.gov/html/om/html/orgchart/org_chart.html> • Lower Manhattan Development Corporation <http://www.renewnyc.com/default.aspx> • Lipton, Eric & Glanz, James. “The Height of Ambition.” New York Times 8 September 2002: Section 6, p.1. • Listening to the City. <http://www.listeningtothecity.org/> • Nathan, Richard P., and Gais, Thomas L. 2005 New York State Statistical Yearbook: 30th Edition. Albany: The Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, 2005. • New York City Charter. <> • Robinson, Eric W., ed. Ancient Greek Democracy. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2004. • Saratoga Springs website. http://www.saratoga-springs.org/docs/bpwebsite.asp • Sontag, Deborah. “The Hole in the City’s Heart.” New York Times 11 September 2006: F1. • “Four Percent of Manhattan's Total Office Space Was Destroyed in the World Trade Center Attack.” Buildings.com September 2001. <http://www.buildings.com/Articles/detail.asp?ArticleID=341>

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