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Early Cold War. Truman & Ike From Isolation to World Superpower Most Americans want to come home and enjoy the post war boom. Post War America. 15 million soldiers, sailors, marines  civilian life 1945-6 problem: finding jobs and homes Fears: depression could return

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early cold war

Early Cold War




From Isolation to World Superpower

Most Americans want to come home and enjoy the post war boom

post war america
Post War America
  • 15 million soldiers, sailors, marines  civilian life
    • 1945-6 problem: finding jobs and homes
    • Fears: depression could return
      • No because war increased per capita income
      • Most in savings
      • Pent up consumer demand:
        • Cars, homes, gov road building projects
        • Fears end
        • By 1950s: US standard of living higher than any in history
gi bill 4 vets
GI Bill 4 Vets
  • Serviceman’s Readjustment Act 1944
    • Helps pay for college
    • Low interest gov backed loans for homes, farms, new businesses
    • Better educated work force stimulates post war economic expansion
suburban growth
Suburban Growth
  • Construction boom
  • Led by Wm Levitt
    • Building + promoting Levittown
      • Planned community of 17,000 mass produced low priced family homes
        • Long Island
        • Low interest rates on mortgages
        • Gov insured + tax deductions
        • Huge move to suburbia
        • Effect on older inner cities
          • Increasingly poor, racially divided
    • Baby boom: increased marriages, births
      • 20 million born 1945-60
      • Home making  work force by 1960 (1/3)
    • Sun Belt: South + SW grew- due to climate, lower taxes and economic opportunity
truman new deal democrat
Truman: New Deal Democrat
  • Favors Civil Rights, got opposition from conservative Democrats
  • Employment Act: 1946: Bill for Gov to commit to continued Full employment- created council of Econ. Advisors, to help promote National Econ welfare
    • Also got increase in min wage & national insurance plan
inflation strikes
Inflation, Strikes
  • Truman wants price controls
    • S. Dems, Reps relax controls results in 25% inflation
      • 1st yr ½ of peace
    • 4.5 million workers go on strike 1946
      • Wages must rise, too
      • RR & mine strikes threaten safety
      • Truman seized mines, kept open w/ soldiers until United Mine Workers end strike
civil rights
Civil Rights
  • Established Committee on Civil Rights 1946
    • Strengthened C.R. division of Justice Dept
      • To end segregation
    • 1948 ordered end of racial discrimination in depts of Fed Gov and ALL branches of armed forces
      • Urged creation of ‘Fair Employment Practices Commission’ to prevent discrim in hiring
        • blocked
80 th congress
80th Congress
  • Unhappy with inflation and strikes, people elected Repub majority to Congress 1946
    • Tried to pass two tax cuts for wealthy
    • Truman vetoed
    • Rolled back part of New Deal w/ 22nd amend:
      • 2 term limit on presidency
      • Taft-Hartley Act 1947: passed over T’s veto (Slave Labor Bill) purpose: stop growing power of unions
        • Outlawed closed shops
          • Workers have to join union b4 being hired
        • Let states pass right to work laws- outlawing union shops
        • Outlaws secondary boycotts
          • Several unions supporting by joining a boycott
        • Gave Pres. Power to invoke 80 day cool off period b4 strike endangers National Safety could be called
          • Unions fight for repeal of TH act thru 50s.
          • No success
election 1948
Election 1948
  • Dem party splintered
    • Conserv Dems form party: Dixiecrats
      • Reaction to Civil Rights issue
      • Nominated Strom Thurmond
        • Lib Dems form new Progressive Party & Nominated Henry Wallace (X vp)
        • Reps nominated Thomas E Dewey, gov NY
        • Truman (man w/o a chance) toured US giving “Give ‘Em Hell” speeches
          • Attacking 80th Do Nothing Congress
          • Shocked pollsters w/ decisive victory
          • 2 million majority in pop election & electoral votes
fair deal
Fair Deal
  • Reform program:
    • national health car insurance
    • Federal aid to education
    • Civil Rights legislation
    • Funds for public housing
    • New farm program
      • Most blocked
      • Exc min wage went up from 40 cents to 75 cents hour
        • & more people were included under Social Security
origins of cold war
Origins of Cold War
  • 1946-91
    • Did Truman over react to Russia’s historic need to secure its borders?
    • Was T soft on Communism?
      • Bolshevik Reb 1917: threat to all capitalist nations
      • Launched Red Scare 1919
      • Non-Aggression pact 1939 (G & USSR) proves they can’t be trusted
      • WWII alliance- of convenience/ NOT mutual trust
      • Stalin complains that allies waited until 1944 to open second front in France
      • After Potsdam, Truman quickly becomes suspicious of Soviet intentions
post war cooperation
Post War Cooperation
  • UN fall 1945- hopeful sign
  • Gen Assembly: to provide representation to all
  • Security Council- 15 members, responsible for maintaining international security and authorizing peace keeping missions
  • 5 allies WWII: permanent members on Sec. Council
    • China, US, Br, Fr, Soviets: Veto Power
post war coop 2
Post War Coop 2
  • Soviets agree to US proposal:
    • Atomic Energy Commission
    • But reject Bernard Baruch Plan to regulate Nuclear energy and eliminate Atomic Weapons
      • Bretton Woods Conf 1944 created World Bank to fund post war re-building
      • Soviets won’t participate: instrument of Capitalism
      • Nuremberg Trials of 22 top Nazi leaders for war crimes 1945-6 Soviets participate
satellite states
Satellite States
  • Soviets occupied countries of Central + E Eur
    • Held ‘elections’ of communist candidates
    • Communists dictators installed in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania 46-48
    • Buffer states?
    • Expansion?
occupation zones in germany
Occupation Zones in Germany
  • Temporary divisions:
    • Br, Fr, Soviet, American zones
      • Fr, Br pull out and US merges western zone
      • East zone becomes new communist state G Dem Repub
      • Soviet want a weak G for security reasons
      • GB & US want a revitalized G for security of Eur
iron curtain
Iron Curtain
  • Canadian Spy Ring stole secrets for Soviets
  • Soviets continue to occupy N.Ira n
  • Washington gets tough
    • Mar 46, Fulton, MO: former PM Churchill speech
      • An iron curtain has descended across the continent of Eur
      • New policy: Halt expansion of soviet power
containment in eur
Containment in Eur
  • Policy of Sec of State, former Gen George Marshall + undersec. Dean Acheson & George F. Kennan
    • Containing soviet expansion would cause Soviets to stop trying for world domination
    • Walter Lippmann (journalist who coined term: Cold War) argued not all areas are vital to US Security
truman doctrine
Truman Doctrine
  • Communist led uprising in Greece
  • Soviets demand partial control over Dardanelles (Turkey)
  • Truman asks Congress for $400 Mill in econ & military aid to assist free people of Greece + Turkey against Totalitarian Regimes
marshall plan
Marshall Plan
  • 1945-7 Eur in ruins- food, fuel shortages / discontent rises
  • Communist party rises, esp in Fr, Italy
    • Recovery program $12 Bill in aid over 4 yrs
    • Rebuild, assure trading partners
    • Soviets & E Repubs offered aid; refused
    • Effects
      • w/ Euro recovery, communist threat ends
      • US exports rise
berlin airlift
Berlin Airlift
  • June 48 Soviets cut off access to W Berlin thru E G
    • Supplies flown in + 60 bombers sent to England in case of war
      • No war
      • May 49: blockade lifted
    • Long Term Effect: Creation of 2 Germanies
  • 1949: Military Defense Pact to protect W Eur, US, 10 Euro nations & Canada
    • Gen Eisenhower: commander
    • Stationed troops in W Euro
      • in case
      • Head quarters: Belgium
warsaw pact 1955
Warsaw Pact 1955
  • Alliance to defend Communist nations from Nato-
    • Eastern Bloc
national security act 1947
National Security Act 1947
  • Created Department of Defense (DOD)
    • Coordinated Army, Navy, Airforce
    • Creates National Security Council
      • NSC
        • To make cold war policy
    • Creates CIA to spy on foreign govs
    • 1948 First perm. Peacetime draft
arms race
Arms Race
  • Competition to develop more , better weapons
    • 1949: Soviets test first A bomb
    • Truman approves new H Bomb: 1,000 times stronger
      • Ready in 1952
      • NSC – 68 Report
        • Recommends: dramatic increase in Defense spending
        • Ally w/ non communist countries around the world
        • Convince American people costly buildup is vital
  • Under US control
    • MacArthur in charge of rebuilding
    • 7 Generals, Premier Tojo tried, executed for war crimes
    • Set up Parliamentary Democ
    • Emperor gave up claims of divinity and allows LTD military capability
philippines pacific
Philippines & Pacific
  • July 4, 1946 Philippines becomes independent
  • Kept air and naval bases through CW
  • UN Trustee Islands taken from Japan
  • Chiang Kai-shek – in power s. 1920s
    • used nationalists (Koumintang) to control
    • During WWII US gave increased aid to help Chiang fight off Japanese control
    • At wars’ end Civil War resumes
      • Chiang’s nationalists v Mao Zedong’s Communists
      • Chiang- corruption + inflation lost support of People
      • 1947 Chiang in retreat.
        • US decides not to mount huge invasion to save Chiang
        • End of 1949: 2 China’s mainland = Communist
        • Taiwan (Formosa) Chiang’s
        • US refused to recognize Beijing- People’s Republic of China until 1979
        • 1950 Mao & Stalin sign Sino-Soviet Pact
          • Proof of world wide Conspiracy
korean war
Korean War
  • Divided at 38th Parallel
    • Soviets N of line; Amers S of line
    • 1949 both armies w/drew
    • N. in hands of Communist leader Kim Il Sung;
    • S. in hands of Nationalists Syngman Rhee
      • Invasion: June 25, 1950 N.K. army invades SK
      • Truman calls spec. session of UN Sec Council
      • Sov Boycott UN votes to defend S. K.
      • Gen D MacArthur + UN forces  Korea “Police Action”
counter attack korea
Counter Attack Korea
  • NKs pushed SKs all the way to tip of peninsula (Pusan)
  • MacArthur’s daring attack behind enemy lines at Inchon Bay turned tide
  • Paushed NKs  China Border
  • China crossed into Korea;
    • Drove UN forces out
    • Fighting stops at 38th parallel
truman v mac arthur
Truman v Mac Arthur
  • Mac Arthur calls for expanding war into China and bombing and invading main land China
  • Truman’s peace talks in danger from this
  • Apr 1951- Truman re-called Gen MacArthur + fired him
  • MacArthur: “There’s no substitute for victory”
    • Hero’s welcome
2 nd red scare
2nd Red Scare
  • 1947- under pressure, Truman set up Loyalty Review Board
    • Investigates 3 mill Fed employees
    • 4 yr probe
    • Thousands fired
2 nd red scare 2
2nd Red Scare 2
  • McCarran Internal Security Act- 1950
    • Unlawful to support any totalitarian Gov
    • Restricted employment and travel of “Communists”
    • Authorized creation of detention camps for subversives
red scare 3
Red Scare 3
  • HUAC: House of Reps- Un-Am Activities committee- 39
    • To find Nazis
    • Now looking for Communists
      • Government
      • Boy Scouts
      • Hollywood Industry, etc
        • Called people to testify
        • Ruined careers w/ accusations
  • Hiss Case:
    • Whittaker Chambers confessed Comm
      • Testified that Alger Hiss gave him docs 4 Soviets
      • FDR assistant at Yalta Conf
        • Denies charges
        • 2nd trial convicted of perjury; jailed
rosenberg case
Rosenberg Case
  • Klaus Fuchs, Br Sci,
    • Gave Russia A Bomb secrets from Los Alamos
      • Traced to spy ring in US
      • Julius & Ethyl Rosenberg
        • Convicted; executed 1953
        • Mostly due to hysteria
joseph mccarthy
Joseph McCarthy
  • Repub Senator, WI
    • 1950 re-election bid
    • Waved papers
      • Claimed to be list of 205 avowed Communists in State Dept
    • Steady stream of unsupported accusations to keep media attention
      • To discredit Truman Admin
    • Turned shrill.. . Popular while attacking Dems
      • After 1952, attacks George Marshall
        • Ike afraid to stand up for his friend
    • Army –McCarthy Hearings
      • Charged army w/ Comm infiltration
      • Hearings televised McCarthy exposed as bully, thug
        • Discredited
        • Censured by Senate Dec 1954
        • Dies 57
eisenhower years
Eisenhower years
  • Ike: former General/Commander of allied forces in Europe, WWII
    • “I Like Ike” Rep slogan
    • Promise: to go to Korea and end the conflict
    • Richard Nixon- conserv Rep, CA balanced ticket
      • Tough on Communists
  • Adlai Stevenson- Dem, pop Gov IL
    • Witty, courageous, eloquent, liberal
campaign 52
Campaign 52
  • Rep for integrity tarnished by allegations of Nixon’s slush fund
    • Campaign funds used for personal matters
    • Nixon used TV: Checkers Speech
    • Landslide victory
domestic policies
Domestic policies
  • Ike delegates authority
  • Cabinet: successful corporate execs
    • Charles Wilson- head of G.M.
    • Went golfing, fishing
  • Modern Republicanism:
    • Bland leading the bland
    • Priority #1: balance budget
    • Accepted most ND programs
      • Extended social security to 10 mill more people
      • Raised min wage
      • Built more public housing
    • Created Health Edu Welfare Dept
      • Oveta Culp Hobby- 1st woman in Rep cabinet
    • Opposed $ to aid education or Fed Health Care Insurance
interstate highway system
Interstate Highway System
  • 1956- Highway Act
    • Authorized construction of 42,000 miles of Highway
      • Wide area every 5 mi
      • National defense
      • Also created jobs,
      • Increased growth of suburbs
      • Hurt RRs
  • Steady growth of economy
  • Low inflation
  • Fed budget (tiny surplus) 3x in 8 yrs
  • Deficits fell
  • 1945-60 per capita disposable income more than tripled
  • Highest standard of living in the world
election 1956
Election 1956
  • 1955- heart attack
  • 1956- major surgery
  • Ike + Nixon v. Stevenson
    • Easy victory
ike cold war
Ike & Cold War
  • Sec St Dulles shapes most policies
    • Dulles Diplomacy
      • Critical of Truman’s containment – too passive
      • New Look: of foreign policy:
        • More bang for the buck… build up nukes; reduce conventional
        • Challenges USSR, China, spoke of liberating captive peoples of E Europe
        • Pushing Comms to brink of war to preserve peace
          • Brinksmanship
        • Hard liner: prevented from being extreme by Ike
  • Brilliant international lawyer
    • Ideologist, moralist, conflict w/ China, USSR
      • Saw things in absolute rights, wrongs
      • Containment substituted reluctantly for Roll Back
        • Righteous crusade against atheistic Marxism
        • Looked like a dangerous man but was very cautious and reported to Ike daily, even on foreign assignments
  • Ike seen by press, academics, pundits:
    • Laid back, well meaning, intellectually ignorant, inarticulate, weak,lazy, left nation on auto pilot
      • By mid 70s, records opened that show he was very hard working, used Dulles and others as lightening rod
      • Used military gobbledy gook to press to avoid giving answers in plain English
      • Excellent command of English, kept it hidden
ike s guiding principles
Ike’s guiding principles
  • Avoid war: seen it up close; hated it
  • No limited wars: object to destroy your enemy with all at disposal (can’t apply to small brush fire conflicts)
  • Security and freedom of world depends on health and strength of US economy
massive retaliation
Massive Retaliation
  • More reliance on nukes & air power
    • Less on conventional ground forces
    • More bang for the buck
    • 53: Russia had the H bomb
    • M.A.D.: to deter each other from using the bomb
unrest in 3 rd world
Unrest in 3rd World
  • Post WWII: Colonial empires collapsed
    • 1947-62 dozens in Asia, Africa bcm indep
    • 1947- India, Pakistan
    • 1949- Indonesia (Dutch E. Indies)
    • 1957- Ghana & more follow
      • All lack stable political + econ institutions
      • All need foreign aid
      • All look to US + USSR
covert action
Covert Action
  • Part of New Look philosophy
    • 1953 CIA helped overthrow gov (Mossadeq) Iran
      • Re-estab’d Reza Pahlavi as Shah
      • Would protect foreign oil interests
      • Shah purchased many weapons from US
    • 1954 CIA overthrew leftist Gov in Guatemala
      • Arbenz- in support of pro US corrupt dictator
      • Anti American feeling grew in L.A.
    • 1958: Nixon Tour
      • Crowds in Venezuela attack motorcade
  • Korean Armistice
    • Ike visited UN forces
    • Diplomacy- threat of nuclear war + sudden death of Stalin moved China, NK to agree to armistice
      • Prisoner exchange- 53
      • Still divided at 38th parallel
asia 2
Asia 2
  • IndoChina
    • French tried to retake after WWII
    • Vietnamese, Cambodians resist
    • Support nationalist communist: Ho Chi Minh
    • 1950 anti colonial war is part of Cold War
    • Truman aids Fr + China + Soviets aid Ho + Viet Minh guerrillas
    • 1954 Dien Bien Phu-
      • French army trapped + forced to surrender
      • Geneva Conf 1954 France gives up IndoChina
      • Divided into indep nations: Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam
asia 3
Asia 3
  • Division of Vietnam at 17th parallel
    • Until General Election
    • N: Ho Chi Minh est Comm dictatorship
    • S: Ngo Dinh Diem supported by urban, Catholic, anti Comm Vietnamese
    • Election to unite Vietnam never held for fear Comms would win
    • 1955-61: US sent $1 bill in econ, mil aid to S.V. to build stable anti comm state
  • Domino Theory
    • Justifies: if one SE Asian country falls to Comm, they all will- then Australia, NZ in trouble
asia 4
Asia 4
  • SEATO treaty
    • To prevent the fall of SV, Laos, Cambodia to communism
      • Dulles assembles defense pact
      • 8 nations sign
      • 1954
      • US, GB, FR, Aust, NZ, Phil, Thai, Pakist
middle east
Middle East
  • Civil War in Br mandate of Palestine left land divided
    • UN creates Israel and Palestine
    • All Arab neighbors immediately attacked Israel
      • Who wins most of Palestinian territory in war
middle east 2
Middle East 2
  • Suez Crisis
    • Egypt’s leader: Gen Gamal Nassar seeks aid to build Aswam Dam on Nile
      • US refused due to threats against Israel
      • Soviets offer aid
      • Looking for other money, Nassar seized, nationalized Br, Fr owned Suez Canal July 1956
        • Banned Israel’s use of Canal
          • w/ Europe’s supply of oil…
          • Br, Fr, Israel surprise attack
          • US pressure got invaders to w/draw
eisenhower doctrine
Eisenhower Doctrine
  • 1957- US pledge of econ + military aid to middle eastern countries threatened by Communism
  • Lebanon 58- 14k Marines land to prevent civil war between Muslims, Christians
  • OPEC + Oil: 1960 Arab nations join Venezuela to form OPEC
    • Regulate production, prices world wide
us soviet relations
US Soviet Relations
  • Fluctuation of calm w/ crisis
  • Spirit of Geneva: After Stalin’s death
    • US slows arms race
  • Soviets w/drew troops from Austria & est’d peaceful relats w/ Greece, Turkey
  • 1955 Summit meeting- Geneva Ike + New Soviet Premier Nikolai Bulganin
    • Ike asks for Open Skies over both countries
      • Aerial photos ok to eliminate chance of nuclear attack
        • Nyet
        • Still a thaw in Cold War
        • 1956 Nikita Khrushchev denounced crimes of Stalin + supported peaceful coexistence w/ west
hungarian revolt
Hungarian Revolt
  • Oct 56: uprising over threw Moscow backed gov
    • New ‘liberal leaders’ want to pull Hungary out of Warsaw Pact
    • Soviet tanks crushed Freedom Fighters + reestab’d control over Hungary
    • Ike unwilling to risk world war over Hungary
      • Let it go
sputnik shock 57
Sputnik Shock ‘57
  • Launched SI, SII into orbit around Earth
  • Technological leadership in question
    • US rockets failed to get off ground
    • Who’s responsible?
    • Some blamed Schools- behind in Math, Sciences
  • Congress passes National Defense and Education Act
    • Authorized hundreds of millions to schools for science + foreign language edu
    • National Aeronautics and Space Admin (NASA)
      • To direct Space program
      • Space race is on!
second berlin crisis
Second Berlin Crisis:
  • 1958 Khrushchev gives West 6 months
    • To get out of Berlin by turning over city to E. G.
    • Camp David visit 1959: agree 2 put off crisis + discuss at Paris Summit 1960
  • U2 incident- 2 weeks b4 meeting
    • Shot down U2 spy plane and captured Francis Gary Powers – pilot exposed US spy flights over USSR
      • Ike takes responsibility, refused to appologize
      • Khrushchev calls off summit conf
communists in cuba
Communists in Cuba
  • Revolution – Cuba, 1959-
    • Castro ousted dictator Batista-
      • Nationalized Amer businesses and property in Cuba
      • US cut off trade w/ Cuba
      • Castro turns to Soviets for support
      • Sets up Communist Totalitarian State
      • Ike orders CIA to train Cuban exiles to retake Cuba
        • Leaves office before ready to go
civil rights1
Civil Rights
  • Color barrier in baseball broke 1947
    • Jackie Robinson- Dodgers
    • In South: segregation, Poll Taxes, literacy tests, etc
  • Schools: Brown v Board of Ed, Topeka, KS
    • Argued by Thurgood Marshall-
      • School seg violated 14th amend protection
        • =protection under the law
        • New Chief Justice Earl Warren agreed w/ Marshall
          • “Sep facilities are inherently unequal” + unconst + ordered Seg in schools to end w/ all delib speed
little rock 9
Little Rock 9
  • Some states closed schools rather than integrate
    • AR Gov: Orval Faubus used National Guard to prevent 9 Af Am Students from entering Little Rock HS as ordered by Fed Ct
      • Ike didn’t support integration
      • Had personal reservations abo Brown case
      • Understood constitutional responsib to uphold Fed authority
        • Sent in Fed troops to stand guard + protect 9 students as they went to school
montgomery bus boycott 1955
Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955
  • Rosa Parks- 2 tired to get up from seat for white man
    • Arrested off bus
    • Sparked protest
    • MLK Jr. started boycott
    • Lasted 1 yr, nearly bankrupted Montgomery busses
    • Sup Ct ruled 1956: seg laws on public transp = unconstitutional
non violent protests
Non Violent protests
  • MLK Jr formed Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
    • Organized ministers and churches to support civil rights movement
    • Students in Greensboro, NC sat at woolworth lunch counter, Feb 1960
    • Spread – often arrested for sitting in restricted areas
    • Piece by piece Southern barriers come down
military industrial complex
Military Industrial Complex
  • Farewell address
    • Warned US to guard against the acquisition of influence, sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex
      • Connections between defense industry and gov
      • Not condemning militarism; making important economic point
        • Can trace the rise of huge executive power in US accompanied by spending increase from WWI -> New Deal -> WWII & now Cold War made large scale, free spending fed gov lock into enormous arms ind, voracious armed forces
        • US econ can be destroyed by intemperate spending by a greedy over large state generating wastefulness + inflation
        • Sd military knows nothing about fighting inflation and this country can choke on mounting military expenses as easily as it could defeat itself by NOT spending enough 4 protection
        • “there is no defense for any country which busts its own econ”