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Sound – Print Connection. Learning to read entails…. Normally developed language skills Knowledge of phonological structures Knowledge of how written units connect with spoken units (alphabetic principle) Phonological recoding and fluency Print exposure Foorman, 2008.

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learning to read entails
Learning to read entails…
  • Normally developed language skills
  • Knowledge of phonological structures
  • Knowledge of how written units connect with spoken units (alphabetic principle)
  • Phonological recoding and fluency
  • Print exposure Foorman, 2008
phonological phonemic awareness
Phonological (phonemic) awareness
  • Children’s knowledge of the internal sound structures of spoken words
  • Correlational AND causal connection to reading success
  • Becomes reciprocal with reading
  • Dialect differences fade with orthographic experience
  • Strongest predictor of reading success, more than IQ Foorman, 2008
phonological recoding
Phonological recoding…
  • Recodings of spellings into pronunciations
  • Main mechanism for word-specific learning (self-teaching model)
  • Allows words to move from a functional to autonomous lexicon; with practice, words become high frequency, “sight”, automatic

Foorman, 2008

the harm seidenberg 1999 model of reading

Phonological

Knowledge

The Harm & Seidenberg 1999 Model of Reading

Begin by modeling pre-

literate phonological knowledge

that children have

Can vary the strength and

consistency of this knowledge

… and simulate the different degrees

of phonological ability children

bring to bear on learning to read

reading uses this phonological knowledge foorman 2008

The model must map

print onto this structured

phonological representation

to read aloud

Phonological

Knowledge

Text

Reading Uses this Phonological KnowledgeFoorman, 2008

The nature of the phonological

representations influences

what is learned during reading

Core result: the phonologically

impaired model learns

differently

analysis of the model

The core impairment is in phonology

… But leads to poor representations between spelling and sound

Analysis of the Model

Phonology

Spelling

So effective interventions must target the relationship

between spelling and sound Foorman 2008

slide8

Spoken Language

Phonological Awareness

-Recognizing that sentences

are made up of words

-Recognizing word-length

-Units in compound words

(e.g. cow/boy)

-Rhyming

-Alliteration (initial sound)

-Onsets and rimes

-Syllables: Blending

Segmenting (counting)

Isolating

Deleting

-Recognizing that words and syllables

are made up of individual sounds

slide9

Phonemic Awareness

  • A cognitive skill consisting of three
  • pieces:
  • -the phoneme is an abstract linguistic
  • unit and not a unit of writing
  • the explicit conscious awareness of that
  • unit
  • the ability to explicitly manipulate
  • such units
  • Specific Skills:
  • Isolating phonemes
  • Blending phonemes
  • Segmenting phonemes
  • Deleting phonemes
  • Substituting phonemes
alphabetic principle
Alphabetic Principle
  • Bridge between sound and print
  • Speech can be turned into print
  • Print can be turned into speech
  • Letters represent sounds in the language
slide12

Reading Comprehension

Getting meaning from the printed word.

Depends on:

- understanding language

- decoding, the ability to figure out a

word’s individual sounds from the

visual representation of letter

sequences or letter groups that

represent individualphonemes

Graphophonic cueing system:

individual speech sounds are mapped

E.g. b ough t

b a t

Torgensen, 2004

sound print connection1
Sound-print Connection
  • Reading Comprehension
  • Deriving meaning from the printed word.
  • Dependent on:
  • - understanding language
  • - decoding, the ability to
  • derive a word’s phono-
  • logical representation
  • from sequence of letters
  • or letter groups
  • representing individual
  • phonemes
  • Grapho-phonic cueing system: individual speech sounds are
  • mapped E.g. b ough t
  • b a t
  • Torgensen, 2004
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • A cognitive skill consisting of three pieces
  • the phoneme is an abstract linguistic unit and not a unit of writing
  • the explicit, conscious awareness of that unit
  • the ability to explicitly manipulate such units
  • Specific Skills:
  • Isolating phonemes
  • Blending phonemes
  • Segmenting phonemes
  • Deleting phonemes
  • Substituting phonemes
  • Spoken Language
  • Phonological Awareness
  • Recognizing that sentences
  • Are made up of words
  • Recognizing word-length
  • Units in compound words
  • (e.g. cow/boy)
  • Rhyming
  • Alliteration (initial sound)
  • Onsets and rimes
  • Syllables: Blending
  • Segmenting (counting)
  • Isolating
  • Deleting
  • Recognizing that words and syllables are
  • made up of individual sounds

Alphabetic Principle

Listening - Speaking - Reading - Writing

phonemic awareness phonics post nrp
Phonemic Awareness & Phonics (Post NRP)
  • Research indicates that when instruction in phonemic awareness is quickly paired with phonics instruction involving letters, it strengthens both the students’ phonological awareness skills as well as their knowledge of the alphabetic principle.

(Foorman et al., 2003)

key understandings
Key understandings
  • Letters represent sounds.
  • A sound can be represented by one letter and sometimes by two or more letters.
  • There is variation in how we represent sounds in words.
  • There is overlap in how we represent sounds in words.
pair each group with one of the key understandings
Pair each group with one of the key understandings.

a) tail eight they say break

b) clown grow

c) tree

d) bat coat

key understandings concepts
Key understandings (concepts)
  • Letters represent sounds. /t/ /r/ /ee/
  • A sound can be represented by one letter and sometimes by two or more letters.
    • /b/ /a/ /t/ /c/ /oa/ /t/
  • There is variation in how we represent sounds in words.

came tail say break theyeight

  • There is overlap in how we represent sounds in words.

ow = grow clown

McGuinness, 1999

skills needed to use a sound symbol system1
Skills needed to use a sound symbol system
  • Segmenting – the ability to separate sounds in words so when you hear the word ‘stop’ you can say the isolated sounds /s/ /t/ /o/ /p/
  • Blending – the ability to blend sounds into words, so when you hear the sounds /s/ /t/ /o/ /p/ you hear the word ‘stop’
  • Manipulate phonemes – the ability to manipulate sounds in and out of words, so that when you read ‘blow’ with the sound ‘ou’ as in cow, and you realize it’s not a word, you can drop the ‘ou’ sound and add the sound ‘oe’ and read ‘bloe’ McGuinnes, 1999
assessment driven early instruction foorman 2008
Assessment-Driven Early Instruction Foorman, 2008
  • Small-group lessons
  • Systematic/explicit plan (PA Sequence) for at-risk readers
  • Skills not taught in isolation; integrated with total reading & writing program
  • Monitor progress
slide26

resources

skill

Instruction must be made more powerful for students at risk for reading difficulties.

More powerful instruction involves:

More instructional time

Smaller instructional groups

More precisely targeted at right level

Clearer and more detailed explanations

More systematic instructional sequences

More extensive opportunities for guided practice

More opportunities for error correction and feedback

Foorman & Torgesen (2001)

support phonemic awareness development
Support Phonemic Awareness Development
  • Offer a print-rich environment in which to interact
  • Engage children
    • with print as both readers and writers
    • in language activities focusing on both form and content of oral and written language
  • Give explicit explanations to children to aid in the discovery of the alphabetic principle
  • Provide opportunities to practice reading and writing for real reasons in different ways to promote fluency and independence
learning outcomes
Learning outcomes……
  • Understand the concepts and skills
  • Perform the skills needed to use the sound-symbol system
  • Internalize information about the sound-symbol system
  • Know thepoint of reference is thesound, not the letter.

McGuinness, 1999

remember
Remember…
  • “Improvement is a process, not an event.” (Elmore, 2004, p.254)
  • “It matters little what else they learn in elementary school if they do not learn to read at grade level.” (Fielding et al., 2007, p.49) Kenwick School