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GCSE PE . HEALTH. IS-A state of complete physical, social and mental well being and not just the absence of illness. PHYSICAL BENEFITS (from exercising) Burns up stored fat, so improves body shape. Tones muscles so improves posture. Helps prevent heart disease.

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  1. GCSE PE

  2. HEALTH IS-A state of complete physical, social and mental well being and not just the absence of illness. PHYSICAL BENEFITS (from exercising) • Burns up stored fat, so improves body shape. • Tones muscles so improves posture. • Helps prevent heart disease. • Strengthens bones and keeps joints flexible.

  3. SOCIAL BENEFITS (from exercising) • Playing sport is a way of meeting new people and making good friends. • Sport develops team work+co-operation. • You may find you are talented and make a career out of sport. MENTAL BENEFITS • Relieves stress and tension. • Feel better about self – increased self confidence. • Enjoyable and stimulating. • Gets rid of aggression.


  5. CARBOHDRATES-energy-rice,pasta bread • PROTEINS-growth+repair-meat, fish, eggs, nuts, beans • FATS-energy-butter, marg.,oils, in cakes, red meat, cheese • VITAMINS-eg. A-fish+eggs-see in dimlight C-citrus fruits+veg-healthy skin • MINERALS-eg. calcium-strong bones and teeth-milk + cheese. • WATER-approx. ½ weight- to prevent dehydration drink plenty esp. when exercising. • FIBRE-prevents constipation-fruit, veg, bran

  6. BALANCED DIET • Energy in must =energy used –otherwise we get problems: • Overweight-having weight in excess of normal. Not harmful unless accompanied by overfat-ness. • Overfat-more body fat than you should have. • Obese-very overfat. • Anorexia-extremely under weight.

  7. Eating for sport • Eat enough carbohydrates needed to provide correct amount of energy for the sport. • Eat proteins to repair wear and tear to muscles. • Drink plenty of water during and after sport. • A balanced diet will give you enough vitamins and minerals.

  8. SOMATOTYPE(body builds) Endomorph- wide hips,narrow shoulders (pear-shaped), lot of fat on body. –wrestling Mesomorph- broad shoulders, narrow hips,(wedge-shaped), muscular body.-many sports eg Sprinting. Ectomorph- narrow shoulders and hips, thin legs and arms, little muscle or fat.-long distance runners.

  9. DRUGSSocially acceptable short term long term • Nicotine(smoking)- heart rate rise Heart disease blood press. rise Lung cancer • Alcohol- affects balance judgement Kidney damage + make u aggressive Liver damage

  10. DRUGSSocially unacceptable • Anabolic steroids- build and repair muscles (heart disease, aggression, body hair-females) • Stimulants- raise heart rate and speed up reactions, keep you alert for long periods ( risk injury, overheating, liver+ brain damage) • Narcotic analgesics(pain killers)- allow athlete to continue without pain. (risk injury-athlete not aware)

  11. Drugs in sport(doping) • Anabolic steroids-throwers, weight lifters, sprinters. • Stimulants-many sports to improve performance- games 3. Narcotic analgesics-many sports- to stop pain-long events, contact sports.

  12. Personal hygiene • Sweating-wash regularly and change clothes to avoid bacteria build up. • Athletes foot-fungus grows between toes.-where flip flops, avoid bare feet, wash often, dry carefully. Treat-powder from chemist. • Veruccas-flat warts on sole of feet. as above avoid bare feet etc.-Treat-ointment from chemist.

  13. EXERCISE Is- ‘ a form of physical activity done primarily to improve one’s health and physical fitness.’ An exercise/training session consists of 3 parts: • Warm up. • Main activity. • Cool down.

  14. WARM UP Consists of 3 parts: 1. Pulse raisers-light jogging or swimming etc. to increase blood flow to muscle +joints – reduce risk of injury. 2. Stretching-work all main muscle +joints to increase flexibility and reduce risk of strains. 3. Skill rehearsal activities eg dribbling/passing ball to prepare mentally.

  15. RESPIRATORY SYSTEMthe lungs and breathing IDENTIFY:- • Larynx-voice box • Trachea –windpipe • Bronchi-two large branches • Bronchioles-smaller branches • Alveoli-tiny air sacs • Ribs • diaphragm

  16. Breathing Inspiration –breathing in Ribs move up and out Diaphragm contracts (pulls down) Lungs expand-air moves in Expiration –breathing out Ribs move down and in Diaphragm relaxes (moves back up) Lungs are compressed-air forced out

  17. Gas exchange • Alveoli are covered in tiny capillaries • Walls of alveoli are very thin so: • Gasses can pass through easily Gas % in inhaled % in exhaled Oxygen 21 % 17% Carbon d. Tiny 3% Nitrogen 79% 79% Water a little a lot

  18. How much air do we breathe? • Tidal volume- the amount of air breathed in or out of the lungs in one breath. • Vital capacity- the maximum amount of air that you can breathe out, after breathing in as deeply as possible. • Oxygen debt- After strenuous exercise like sprinting, your muscles need extra oxygen to get rid of lactic acid. This extra oxygen is called the oxygen debt. You pay it of by gulping air into the lungs.

  19. Cell respiration AEROBIC RESPIRATION –producing ENERGY with oxygen Marathon runners or other long distance/time events games etc. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION-producing ENERGY without oxygen Sprints or short power events-after short time causes muscle ache and fatigue due to lactic acid build up.

  20. EFECTS OF TRAINING ON THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • Rib and Diaphragm grow stronger. • Vital capacity (max.amount of air exhaled after deepest breath) increases. • More alveoli available for gas exchange. • More capillaries grow around the alveoli.

  21. Circulatory SystemBlood, heart and blood vessels • What’s in blood? : • Plasma-water and other substances eg glucose. • Red cells-carry oxygen to body cells. • White cells-fight disease. • Platelets-to help clot blood and form scabs.

  22. Blood vessels • Veins-carry blood back to the heart-have valves to prevent blood flowing backwards. • Capillaries-thin walls to allow food+oxygen to pass out to body cells. Join arteries to veins. • Arteries-carry blood away from heart-have thick elastic walls.

  23. HEART IDENTIFY:- • ATRIUM-upper chambers • VENTRICLES-lower chambers • SEPTUM-wall down the middle • VALVES-between the atrium and ventricles and in arteries leaving the heart.

  24. Functions of each part of heart.

  25. HEART ACTIONS • Heart rate – number of beats per minute • Stroke volume-volume of blood pumped from the heart each beat • Cardiac output-volume of blood pumped out of the heart each minute • Double circulatory system-heart pumps blood to the lungs to collect oxygen and at same time pumps blood around the body to deliver food+oxygen to cells

  26. EFFECTS OF TRAININGON THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM • Heart contracts more strongly. More blood pumped out with each beat – Stroke vol. Increases • Cardiac output (vol. of blood per min.) increases. • Resting pulse rate falls. • Recovery rate improves. • Blood pressure falls.


  28. BONES • OSSIFICATION-bone growth-at end of bones (growth plates) • EPIPHYSIS-end of bone covered in cartilage for protection • DIAPHYSIS-middle of bone contains bone marrow • PERISTEUM-covers all but end of bone

  29. VERTEBRAL COLUMN 1. Cervical vertebrae-support neck+head let you bend and tilt your head • Thoracic vertebrae-ribs connected to these. Don’t move much protect heart and lungs from being squashed • Lumbar vertebrae-Big to support back allows plenty of twisting and turning • Sacrum –5 fused vertebrae a solid base for the trunk and legs • Coccyx-ancestral tail

  30. JOINTS • TENDONS Attach muscle to the bone • LIGAMENTS Attach bone to bone so provide stability for joints

  31. JOINTS • Definition-where two or more bones meet. Three types of joints • Fixed-cranium+sacrum • Slightly moveable-vertebrae • Freely movable-synovial joints hinge, ball+socket etc

  32. FREELY MOVABLE/ SYNOVIAL JOINTS A freely movable joint has: • Ligaments which hold it together • Cartilage to protect the ends • Synovial fluid to act as a shock absorber and make the joint work smoothly • Synovial membrane which lines the joint capsule

  33. Three types of freely movable joints • Ball +socket- hip+ shoulder • Hinge- elbow+knee • Pivot-joint between atlas+axis so you can turn your head, and between radius and ulna so you can turn your hand

  34. TYPES OF MOVEMENT • FLEXION-bending/bring two bones together at a joint • EXTENSION-Straightening part of body to its normal position • ABDUCTION-movement away from centre line of body • ADDUCTION-movement towards centre line of body • ROTATION-turning movement either part of body or all of body

  35. EFFECTS OF TRAINING ON BONES AND JOINTS • Bones become stronger. • Ligaments become stronger. 3. Stretching increases the range of movement at a joint -FLEXIBILITY

  36. MUSCLES THREE TYPES • Voluntary (Striped)-Under conscious control. skeletal muscles-eg. biceps • Involuntary (smooth)-Not under conscious control-eg.intestines. • Cardiac (Striped)-Not under conscious control. Must work none stop.

  37. Name Of Muscles Their Location And Function -some examples • Deltoid (shoulder)-Raise arm sideways at shoulder (abduction) • Biceps (upper,front arm) Bends arm at elbow (flexion) • Triceps (upper,back arm) Straightens arm at shoulder (extension) • Hamstrings (upper,back leg) Bends leg at knee (flexion) • Quadriceps (upper, front leg) Straightens leg at knee. NOTE DO NOT USE ABBREVIATIONS eg. quads or pecks

  38. ANTAGONISTIC MUSCLE ACTION Bending and straightening arm • Bending arm at elbow-Biceps contract whilst triceps relax –FLEXION • Straightening arm at elbow-Triceps contract whilst biceps relax-EXTENSION • Bending and straightening leg • Bending leg at knee-Hamstrings contract whilst quadriceps relax-FLEXION • Straightening leg at knee-Quadriceps contract whilst hamstrings relax-EXTENSION

  39. 2 Types Of Muscle Contraction 1. ISOTONIC- produces movement eg.running, throwing 2. ISOMETRIC- increased tension but length does not alter eg.rugby scrum and tug of war

  40. 2 Types Of Muscle Fibres • SLOW TWITCH-do not tire easily used for endurance events eg.marathons • FAST TWITCH-faster and more force but tire easily used for bursts of strength and power eg. sprints

  41. Muscle Tone And Posture • MUSCLE TONE-the state of partial contraction needed to just stand up • POSTURE-poor muscle tone leads to poor posture

  42. EFFECTS OF TRAINING ON MUSCULAR SYSTEM ENDURANCE TRAINING • Muscles get better at using oxygen, so can work harder and longer without fatigue. • M. get better at using fats for energy. • More capillaries grow around muscles, so better gas exchange. STRENGTH TRAINING • Increase in muscle size and strength. • M. contract more strongly • Tendons get bigger and stronger.

  43. FITNESS is-The ability to meet the demands of the environment. 5 HEALTH RELATED components: 1. Muscular strength 2. Muscular endurance 3. Flexibility • Body composition • Cardio-vascular fitness/aerobic capacity All above important to every day life and sports performers

  44. FOUR TYPES OF BONES LONG Upper and lower arms and legs ribs phalanges SHORT carpals in wrist tarsals in feet FLAT pelvis cranium scapula IRREGULAR patella vertebrae

  45. SKILL RELATED FITNESS 6 components • A agility • B balance • C co-ordination • P power • R reaction time • S speed

  46. Agility-ability to change position of body quickly eg dodging around players. • Balance-ability to retain centre of gravity of body above a base. Eg on beam in gym, or doing good footwork in netball/basketball • Co-ordination-ability to use two or more body parts together. Eg catching a ball

  47. Power-ability to do strength exercises quickly eg throw in athletics or hit a ball. • Reaction time-time between presentation of stimulus and onset of movement (response) eg saving goal in football, fast start in sprint. • Speed-rate at which we move all or part of our body over a distance.


  49. Introduction Training involves: • Following the principles • Choosing a method • Completing the programme

  50. THE PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING S Specificity P Progression O Overload R Reversibility/Regularity T Tedium

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