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GCSE PE Revision. An Introduction to Physical Education. Competence Performance Creativity Healthy, Active Lifestyles. Key Concepts. This involves the skills you learn and how you apply them. It is also about how ready you are in body and mind to perform them.

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gcse pe revision

GCSE PE Revision

An Introduction to Physical Education

key concepts

Competence

  • Performance
  • Creativity
  • Healthy, Active Lifestyles
Key Concepts
competence

This involves the skills you learn and how you apply them. It is also about how ready you are in body and mind to perform them.

  • E.g. In football you should learn how to pass
  • E.g. Knowing when to shoot in basketball
  • In Netball not getting out of breath after 5 mins

Remember

S - Skills

A - Apply

R - Readiness

Competence
performance

Producing effective outcomes when participating in physical activities.

  • Performing well – being physically able and having good skills
  • Knowing what is required to perform skills well
  • E.g. read a game of football well and make a successful pass at the right time
Performance
creativity

Exploring and experimenting with techniques, tactics and ideas in order to do well.

  • Using your imagination
  • E.g. trying out different tactics in badminton to see what works well
  • E.g. linking a set of skills together in a imaginative way in gymnastics
Creativity
healthy active lifestyles

Understanding the purpose of physical activity in making us healthy.

  • Understanding that exercise makes you fitter and happier.
  • E.g. taking part in a regular hockey session would make you fitter.
Healthy, Active Lifestyles
fundamental motor skills

Running

  • Jumping
  • Throwing
  • Kicking
  • Hitting
  • Catching
Fundamental Motor Skills
decision making

Decisions made by:

  • Participants
  • Coaches/Leaders
  • Officials
Decision Making
abiding by the rules etiquette and sportsmanship

Rules protect players, leaders and officials.

  • If rules are followed accidents are less likely to occur.
  • Rules ensure fair play.
  • Rules make the game more enjoyable.
  • Etiquette in sport is known as sportsmanship. This is a code of behaviour that compliments the rules.
Abiding by the rules, etiquette and sportsmanship
the importance of warming up and cooling down

Cool Down

  • Speeds up removal of lactic acid.
  • Decreases the risk of injury.
  • Reduces the likelihood of muscle soreness/aches.
  • Prevents blood pooling.
  • Prevents fatigue.
  • Prevents dizziness.
  • Gradually reduces heart rate/breathing rate/temperature.

Warm Up

  • Prepares the body and mind for exercise.
  • Decreases the chance of injury.
  • Reduces the likelihood of muscle soreness.
  • Increase in muscle temperature helps ensure there is more energy
  • And therefore muscles are more flexible.
  • Improves speed and strength of muscular contraction.
The Importance of Warming Up and Cooling Down
the characteristics of skilful movement

Efficiency – not wasting energy

  • Pre-determined – knowing what you want to achieve
  • Coordinated – linking things together well
  • Fluent – movements are flowing and smooth
  • Aesthetic – skills look good

E.g. A badminton serve beats the opponent and lands inside the court

E.g. A gymnastics routine is fluent and coordinated

The Characteristics of Skilful Movement
goal setting

Setting goals:

  • Motivates people to exercise
  • Helps improve performance
  • Can increase confidence
  • Controls anxiety/worry
  • There are two types of goal:
    • Performance Goal
    • Outcome Goal
Goal Setting
performance and outcome goals

Performance Goals

  • Relate directly to improving the performance of the technique or tactic.
  • E.g. improve running technique in sprinting

Outcome Goals

  • Are concerned with the end result.
  • E.g. to win a football match
Performance and Outcome Goals
assessing the body s readiness for exercise

To assess whether someone is ready for exercise you must first assess them.

One way is by Health Screening e.g.

  • BMI (testing the body mass index or body composition)
    • weight / height squared
  • Testing cholesterol, blood glucose and iron levels
  • Heart rate/resting heart rate – ideal is between 60 and 80
  • Blood pressure – normal is 120/80
  • Family history

Use a PARQ – Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire

Assessing the Body’s Readiness for Exercise
assessing the body s readiness for exercise1

To assess whether someone is ready for exercise you must first assess them.

Another way is by Fitness Testing e.g.

  • Assessing Cardiovascular Endurance or Stamina (test for V02 Max) – Multistage Fitness Test or 12 Minute Cooper Run
  • Assessing Strength – Grip Strength Dynamometer (squeeze it as hard as possible).
  • Assessing Speed – 30m Sprint
  • Assessing Flexibility – Sit and Reach Test

Tests must be reliable and valid – check equipment is working, make sure it is measured accurately and consistently.

Assessing the Body’s Readiness for Exercise
components of a healthy diet

Carbohydrates –

    • give us energy e.g. pasta
  • Fats –
    • give us energy, protect vital organs e.g. cakes , oily fish
  • Proteins –
    • essential for growth and repair of tissue e.g. meat
  • Vitamins –
    • prevents disease and illness e.g. fruit
  • Minerals –
    • essential for good health e.g. calcium for healthy bones and teeth found in dairy products such as milk
  • Water –
    • helps remove waste products, regulates body temperature, prevents dizziness and fatigue
  • Fibre –
    • helps digestion e.g. cereal, vegetables
Components of a Healthy Diet
characteristics of a healthy lifestyle

Eating a healthy, balanced diet

  • Maintaining a balance of food intake and energy expenditure (exercise)
  • Regular exercise – government recommends 1 hour on 5 or more days a week
  • Maintaining a healthy body weight
  • Not Smoking
  • Sensible Alcohol Consumption
  • Maintain low levels of stress
Characteristics of a Healthy Lifestyle
factors affecting performance and participation

Age – discrimination, lack of confidence

  • Gender – stereotyping, discrimination, less women take part
  • Disability – lack of facilities, lack of confidence
  • Alcohol Consumption
  • Smoking – get out of breath, illnesses, less stamina
  • Over/Under Eating – too heavy, not enough energy, lack of motivation
  • Performance Enhancing Drugs – addiction, depression, disqualification, banned from sport, death
Factors Affecting Performance and Participation
indicators of health and well being

Satisfaction with Aspects of Life

  • Frequency of Positive and Negative Feelings
  • Frequency of Activities that have a Positive Affect on Well-Being
  • Access to Green Space
  • Level of Participation in Activities
  • Positive Mental Health
Indicators of Health and Well-Being
methods of exercise and training

Circuit Training

  • Aerobics (Body Pump, Spinning, Dance Exercise)
  • Aqua Aerobics
  • Yoga
  • Pilates
  • Continuous Training
Methods of Exercise and Training
levels of participation in the uk

3/4 adults have taken part in some sport, game or physical activity in the last 12 months.

  • In terms of participation the 5 most popular sports amongst adults in the UK are:
    • Walking 46%
    • Swimming 35%
    • Keep Fit/Yoga 22%
    • Cycling 19%
    • Cue Sports (Snooker/Pool) 17%
  • Participation rates by gender and age:
    • 51% Men and 36% Women participate in regular exercise
    • 44% Men and 31% Women belong to a sports club
    • 40% Men and 14% Women enter sporting competitions
  • Women’s participation in football and rugby are now much higher than in the past and this is on the rise.
  • The proportion of adults who take part in at least one sport generally decreases with age.
    • 77% of 16 – 19 year olds take part in at least sport
    • 30% of 70+ year olds take part in at least 1 sport
  • Participation in some activities is strongly related to age:
    • Soccer, cue sports, running and cycling are more popular amongst younger age groups
    • Golf is popular amongst adults with an average age of 42 but many adults up to 69 take part
    • Swimming/keep fit/yoga is popular amongst adults between 16 and 44 but this then declines
    • Bowls is popular amongst adults between 60 and 69 years old
Levels of Participation in the UK
reasons for participation

Health Reasons

  • To manage stress
  • To feel good
  • To have a good sense of well-being
  • To live longer
  • To improve or maintain an image
  • For enjoyment
  • To meet new people or to make friends
  • As a hobby
  • To please or to copy parents or role models
  • To make money or as a job
Reasons for Participation
reasons for non participation

Health Reasons

  • Disability
  • Injury
  • Discrimination
  • Lack of Time/Other Pressures
  • Cultural
  • Peer Pressure
  • Technology
  • Lack of Confidence
  • Lack of encouragement or Positive Influences
  • Lack of Opportunities due to Facilities
  • Lack of Money
Reasons for Non-Participation
social cultural and locational reasons affecting participation

Access to facilities

  • Ethnicity
  • Religion
  • Environment
  • Climate
  • Cultural barriers
  • Funding barriers
  • Time
  • Resources
  • Peer Pressure
Social, Cultural and Locational Reasons Affecting Participation
school influences on participation

PE Lessons

  • Extra-Curricular Sports Clubs
  • Exam Courses e.g. GCSE PE
  • Links with Local Sports Clubs
  • The National Curriculum – it is compulsory
  • Health Awareness Programmes
  • Provides opportunities for children to follow the key processes in physical education (as mentioned earlier)
School Influences on Participation
pathways for involvement in physical activity

Regular involvement in PE, Sport and Dance

  • Take part in school and community sport and dance opportunities
  • To gain a qualification as a performer, leader or official
  • Being involved in challenging and complex tasks
  • Reaching the highest possible standards
  • Pursuing routes into sport through volunteering
Pathways for Involvement in Physical Activity