PCB DESIGN Dr. P. C. Pandey EE Dept, IIT Bombay Revised Aug’07. Topics General Considerations in Layout Design Layout Design for Analog Circuits Layout Design for Digital Circuits Artwork Considerations References
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Dr. P. C. Pandey
EE Dept, IIT Bombay
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS IN LAYOUT DESIGNMain issues• Component interconnections • Effects of parasitics• Physical accessibility of components • Power dissipationSubtopics 1.1 Parasitic effects1.2 Supply conductors1.3 Component placement
1.1 Parasitic EffectsR & L of conductor tracksC between conductor tracksResistanceResistance of 35 μm thickness, 1 mm wide conductor = 5 mΩ/cmChange in Cu resistance with temperature = 0.4% / °CCurrent carrying capacity of 35 μm thickness Cu conductor (for 10 °C temperature rise): Width (mm) 1 4 10 Ic (A) 2 4 11
• Tracks opposite each other
- Run supply lines above each other
- Don’t let signal line tracks overlap for any significant distance
• Tracks next to each other
- Increase the spacing between critical conductors
- Run ground between signal lines
To be considered in
•High frequency analog circuits
• Fast switching logic circuits
1.2 Supply ConductorsUnstable supply & ground due to• Resistive voltage drop• Voltage drop caused by track L and high freq. current• Current spikes during logic switching local rise in ground potential & fall in Vcc potential possibility of false logic triggering.Solutions•Conductor widths : W (ground) > W (supply) > W(signal)• Ground plane• Track configuration for distributed C between Vcc & ground• Analog & digital ground (&supply) connected at the most stable point
1.3 Component Placement•Minimize critical conductor lengths & overall conductor length • Component grouping according to connectivity • Same direction & orientation for similar components • Space around heat sinks •Packing density• Uniform • Accessibility for • adjustments • component replacement • test points • Separation of heat sensitive and heat producing components •Mechanical fixing of heavy components
2. LAYOUT DESIGN FOR ANALOG CIRCUITS• Supply and ground conductors • Signal conductors for reducing the inductive and capacitive coupling • Special considerations for • Power output stage circuits • High gain direct coupled circuits • HF oscillator /amplifier • Low level signal circuits
2.1 Ground & Supply Lines• Separate GND (& Vcc) lines for analog & digital circuits• Independent ground for reference voltage circuits• Connect different ground conductors at most stable
• Supply lines with sufficient
width and high capacitive
coupling to GND
(use decoupling capacitors)
• Supply line should first
connect to high current drain
• Supply line independent for voltage references
• Decoupling capacitor between Vcc & GND Capacitive load on o/p
• Reduce capacitive coupling between output & input lines
• Vcc decoupling for large BW ckts. (even for LF operation)
• Separation between signal & GND to reduce capacitive loading
2.3 Circuits with High Power O/P StageResistance due to track length & solder joints modulation of Vcc & GND and low freq. oscillations • Large decoupling capacitors • Separate Vcc & GND for power & pre- amp stages
2.4 High Gain DC AmplifierSolder joints thermocouple jnTemp gradients diff. noisy voltages • Temp.gradients to be avoided • Enclosure for stopping free movement of surrounding air
A) High impedance circuits - Capacitive coupling
B) Low impedance circuits - Inductive coupling
High -Z circuitsIf R » 1∕ jw(Cxy+Cy)then coupled Vy = Va × [Cxy/(Cy+Cxy)]• Increase separation between low level high Z line and high level line(decrease Cxy)• Put a ground line between the two (guard line)Example:Guard for signal leakage from FET output to input
Low – Z Circuits• Voltage induced in ground loops due to external magnetic fields • Current caused in the low- Z circuit loop due to strong AC currents in nearby circuits Vm= - (d/dt) B dA• Avoid ground loops • Keep high current ac lines away from low level,low Z circuit loops • Keep circuit loop areas small
• Ground & supply line noise
• Cross-talk between neighboring signal lines
• Reflections : signal delays, double pulsing
Noise generated due to current spikes during logic level switching,
drawn from Vcc and returned to ground
• Internal spike: charging & discharging of transistor junction capacitances in IC ( 20 mA, 5ns in TTL)
• External spike: charging & discharging of output load capacitance
Ground potential increases, Vcc decreases: improper logic triggering.
Problem more severe for synchronous circuits.
Severity of problem (increasing): CMOS, ECL, TTL.
• Decoupling C between Vcc & ground for every 2 to 3 IC’s :
ceramic, low L cap. of 10 nf for TTL & 0.5 nF for ECL & CMOS
•Stabilizes Vcc-GND (helps against internal spikes
• Not much help for external spikes
• Low wave impedance between supply lines (20 ohms):
5 to 10 mm wide lines opposite each other as power tracks
•Ground plane : large Cu area for ground
to stabilize it against external spikes
• Closely knit grid of ground conductors
(will form ground loops, not to be used for analog circuits)
• Twist Vcc & GND line between PCBs
• Occurs due to parallel running signal lines
(ECL: 10cm,TTL: 20 cm, CMOS: 50 cm)
• Problem more severe for logic signals flowing in opposite directions
• Reduce long parallel paths
• Increase separation
betw. signal lines
• Decrease impedance
betw. signal & ground lines
• Run a ground track
between signal lines
Caused by mismatch between the logic output impedance
& the wave impedance of signal tracks.
• Signal delay (low wave imp.) • Double pulses (high wave imp.)
TTL (Z: 100 - 150 )
0.5 mm signal line with GND plane, 1 mm without GND plane.
Signal lines between PCBs twisted with GND lines.
ECL (Z: 50 )
1 - 3 mm signal line with GND plane, or nearby gnd conductor.
CMOS (Z: 150 – 300 )
0.5 mm signal line without GND plane. Gnd not close to signal lines.
Signal–GND Zw ()
100 - 150
50 - 100
150 - 300
Signal line width (mm)
0.5 with gnd
1, no gnd
1 - 3 with gnd
0.5, no gnd
Vcc -GND Zw ()
Vcc line (mm)
2 to 3
GND line (mm)
Summary of Layout Design Considerations
(for 1.6 mm thickness, double sided boards)
• Orientation for shortest interconnection length.
• Conductor tracks on opposite sides in x-direction & y-direction to minimize via holes.
• 45° or 30° / 60° orientation for turns.
• Begin and end at solder pads, join conductors for reducing interconnection length.
• Avoid interconnections with internal angle <60°.
• Distribute spacing between conductors .
• Uniformity of ring around the hole.
• Conductor width d > w > d/3.