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Strategic information management and leadership practice. I. ICT, work, and communication • Management and internal and external practices • Communities of practice II. System success and failure • Customer relationship management III . Knowledge management

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strategic information management and leadership practice
Strategic information management and leadership practice

I. ICT, work, and communication

• Management and internal and external practices

• Communities of practice

II. System success and failure

• Customer relationship management

III. Knowledge management

• KM and intellectual capital

• KM and data management

IV. SIML careers

• Proactive management

i ict work and communication
I. ICT, work, and communication

Internal and external practices Environment

Organization External: Internal: Scanning Leading Learning Planning Representing Monitoring Negotiating Controlling Negotiating

At the boundary Gatekeeping Disseminating Liaison Boundary Maintenance

i ict work and communication1
I. ICT, work, and communication

Leading

An interpersonal role based on manager-subordinate relationships

Involves routine exercise of power and decision making

Managers define and structure work environments

Pursue organizational strategies and objectives

Oversee and questions activities

Select, encourage, promote and discipline

Balance subordinate and organizational needs for efficient operations

i ict work and communication2
I. ICT, work, and communication

Planning

A decision making role where managers establish goals, policies, and procedures

Reflecting on the consequences of different plans, a manager selects and implements an optimal plan for the team

This requires a long-term view

Planning reduces the uncertainty of change

Provides direction and allows a manager communicate what needs to be done at specific times

A plan is a structure and framework for action

i ict work and communication3
I. ICT, work, and communication

Monitoring

Managers need reliable procedures to attend to internal workings of the workgroup and the organizational and external environment

They should constantly seek information to detect changes, threats and opportunities

Observing performance and anticipating problems

They build, maintain, use, and extend formal and informal intelligence systems

It requires building contacts outside the workgroup and training staff to communicate information

i.a.cnn.net/cnn/2006/US/Careers/03/24/cb.boss.spying/story.boss.spying.jpg

i ict work and communication4
I. ICT, work, and communication

Controlling

To manage costs and meet organizational goals

The manager must be able to exercise power over subordinates, especially time and activities

Getting them to do what you want when you want them to do it

Control is linked to planning

Managers set benchmarks and goals

They must be able to control the resources needed to get the work done

www.bedin.no/Images/captain-controlling-speed.jpg

i ict work and communication5
I. ICT, work, and communication

Negotiating

There is competition for time, resources, attention, and rewards

Conflict is a natural, recurring part of organizational life found in relationships among individuals and groups

Negotiation is a way to resolve competition and conflict

Managers use it to come to an agreement that satisfies everyone’s needs

Goal: to at least satisfy all parties in a way preferable to what they could achieve without negotiating

www.sisnic.co.uk/images/bateman/financial_planning_small.jpg

i ict work and communication6
I. ICT, work, and communication

Practices at the boundary

Gatekeeping is a boundary spanning role linking internal and external networks

Managerial practice at the workgroup or departmental boundary involves control of the flow of information, people, and resources

The manager is information filter and decision maker

Goal: provide subordinates with the right information (and resources) in the right amount in the right form at the right time

Managers also control access to their domains

i ict work and communication7
I. ICT, work, and communication

Liaison

Based on interpersonal relationships, connecting the manager to peers and superiors

Interpersonal skills shape and maintain internal and external contacts for information exchange

A system of favors and obligations arises

Relationships arise from formal authority and status that support information and decision activities

A manager’s contacts give access to organizational stores of knowledge (facts, requirements, solutions) and resources

i ict work and communication8
I. ICT, work, and communication

Boundary maintenance and protection

The manager works at the boundary between the workgroup and the organization to protect the workgroup by manipulating its boundaries

Attempts to prevent a drain of human and material resources out of the group

Attempts to acquire resources for the group

Boundaries are porous and shift over time and with the situation

This requires other managerial practices (negotiation)

i ict work and communication9
I. ICT, work, and communication

External practices

Environmental scanning: much managerial information comes from external sources

Events and changes in the environment send signals that organizations detect, decode, and use

It is a source of information, resources, and ecological variation

Scanning is the acquisition and use of information about events and trends in the external environment

Choo, C.W. (1998). The knowing organization: How organizations use information to construct meaning, create knowledge and make decisions. Oxford University Press.

i ict work and communication10
I. ICT, work, and communication

Where to scan

www.xecu.net/schaller/marketing/mktglnts_files/image004.gif

i ict work and communication11
I. ICT, work, and communication

Representing (figurehead)

This is another of Mintzberg’s interpersonal roles

Representing the workgroup to external audiences

These are within and external to the organization

The manager participates in organizational ceremonies

It is the manager’s responsibility to carry out social, inspirational, legal and cultural duties

The manager is a symbol

She must be on hand for people and agencies that will only deal with her because of status and authority

i ict work and communication12
I. ICT, work, and communication
  • Community of practice (Lave and Wegner)
  • CoPs form around practices that are informally learned
  • They typically emerge and are not artificially developed
  • Informal networks supporting practitioners as they develop shared meanings
  • Social learning, negotiating meaning; preserving and creating knowledge; sharing information
  • Identity serves as the glue that connects members of the community
  • Legitimate peripheral participation: apprenticeship that allows newcomers to learn to participate in the CoP
i ict work and communication13
I. ICT, work, and communication
  • Professional socialization and identity
  • CoPs provide a context for professional socialization to build professional identity
  • Everyday practice is a more powerful source of socialization than intentional pedagogy
  • Participants need socialization in order to learn the professional identity of a particular profession
  • CoP serves as effective scaffolding to support professional development
  • IT (listservs) are not effective social integrators for professionals working at different sites
i ict work and communication14
I. ICT, work, and communication
  • CoP serves as effective scaffolding to support professional development
  • Listservs are not effective social integrators for professionals working at different sites
  • Most effective for sharing work-related technical information
  • Least effective for sharing important cultural meanings about how to approach work and develop professional identities
  • Identity formation supported practice but did not appear to be strongly supported by IT
ii system success and failure
II. System success and failure

Communities of practice: Improving knowledge management in business

The author conducts a literature review of articles focused on knowledge management between 1998-2009 and finds that the content has shifted from technological issues to social and administrative issues

He concludes that the research indicates that CoPs are increasingly important in KM

~ Is the argument persuasive? Did the author convince you of the importance of CoPs in KM?

~ As a manager, what is your take-away from this article?

ii system success and failure1
II. System success and failure

KM: organizations generate knowledge and information and allow employees access for immediate use

Knowledge creation is a key source for competitive advantage in organizations

Strategic management and IS are fundamental disciplines in KM

Organizational culture and organizational behavior may also influence KM

However there is no consensus regarding the value, meaning and usefulness of KM as a management tool

Rivera, J.C.A. (2011). Communities of Practice: Improving Knowledge Management in Business. Business Education & Administration, 3(1), 101-111

ii system success and failure2
II. System success and failure

Organizational knowledge: the capacity of a company to create new knowledge and distribute it throughout the organization

Knowledge as a productive asset

KM allows organizations to transfer the right knowledge to right people at the right time

It is a management process that adds value to the company and promotes an efficient performance

It must take into account the organizational culture and human resources participation

ii system success and failure3
II. System success and failure

1998-2004: 60% of CoP articles related to organizational behavior

Articles were more academic, cultural and theoretically based, not technically oriented

2005-2009: 60% of CoP articles were related to technological, managerial and cultural orientations

Theoretical constructs have been receiving a fair treatment in literature include management, technology and organizational behavior topics

CoPsare an excellent platform for better performance in KM, because they attend to administrative, technological and cultural factors

strategic information management and leadership practice1
Strategic information management and leadership practice

I. ICT, work, and communication

• Management and internal and external practices

• Communities of practice

II. System success and failure

• Customer relationship management

III. Knowledge management

• KM and intellectual capital

• KM and data management

IV. SIML careers

• Proactive management

ii system success and failure4
II. System success and failure

What makes for CRM system success - Or failure?

Foss, Stone and Ekinciinvestigate factors leading to the success and failure of CRM projects, noting that more than half fail

Poor planning, lack of clear objectives and not recognizing the need for business change were the main reasons that CRM projects failed

~What are some characteristics of projects likely to fail?

~Why does it take so long for problems to surface in these types of projects?

ii system success and failure5
II. System success and failure

Companies are investing large sums of money in CRM projects ($10.9 billion by 2010)

Goal is to gain a competitive edge

Research shows, however, that many projects do not result in significant gains in performance

70% produce losses or no bottom-line improvement

Projects represent major changes in ways that firms deal with customers

Also requires change from partners, suppliers

Foss, B., Stone, M. and Ekinci, Y. (2008). What makes for CRM system success - Or failure? Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management, 15(2), 68-78.

ii system success and failure6
II. System success and failure

CRM: technology-based business management tool for developing and leveraging customer knowledge

Effectively segment customers

Develop and maintain long-term relationships with profitable customers

Determine how to handle unprofitable customers

Customize market offerings and promotional efforts

Operational: reduces operating costs and improving customer handling

Analytical: aggregating and mining customer information

ii system success and failure7
II. System success and failure

Critical success factors

Readiness assessment; strategic change management (organizational and cultural); cross functional project management; employee engagement

Critical failure factors

Defining the initiative as technological; system-centric view; poor understanding of customer lifetime value

Lack of management support/buy in; poor change management; lack of integration into larger systems

Poor understanding of processes needed to make system work

ii system success and failure8
II. System success and failure

Findings

Types of projects: customer data and analytics, marketing and campaign management, distribution channels

Types of activities: call centers, adding capacity, web- based CRM; integration of CRM across channels

Problems remain hidden for too long

Not sufficient support/incentive for disclosure

Lack of good governance and oversight

Sets off cascade of delay, recovery and delay

ii system success and failure9
II. System success and failure

Cost of poor project management

When issues do arose, it is too late to address them with tactical and immediate corrections

The project is then over time and budget and required shifting deadlines

Each request for extension reduces confidence of upper level managers

Business benefits are delayed or lost

New business areas or initiatives not launched

New markets not entered

strategic information management and leadership practice2
Strategic information management and leadership practice

I. ICT, work, and communication

• Management and internal and external practices

• Communities of practice

II. System success and failure

• Customer relationship management

III. Knowledge management

• KM and intellectual capital

• KM and data management

IV. SIML careers

• Proactive management

iii knowledge management
III. Knowledge management

What is knowledge management?

An integrated approach to identifying, managing and sharing an enterprise's information assets

Databases, documents, policies and procedures, and previously unarticulated expertise and experience resident in individual workers

Gartner Group 1996

Question: are investments in KM systems worth it?

Importance of having reliable techniques for evaluating KM performance

Chen, M.Y. and Chen, A.P. (2006). Knowledge management performance evaluation: a decade review from 1995 to 2004 Journal of Information Science, 32(1), 17-38

iii knowledge management1
III. Knowledge management

Assumptions of KM

A systematic process of finding, selecting, organizing, and presenting information to improve employee comprehension in a specific area of interest

Goal: to create value and improve performance

Create, store, retrieve, analyze and distribute structured and unstructured information

Business value generated by the explicit management of knowledge networks

To extract meaning and assess relevance to answer questions, find opportunities, solve current problems

iii knowledge management2
III. Knowledge management

Knowledge managers work with different sources of information and knowledge seeking their business value and possibility of use in innovation

Business documents, forms, data bases, spreadsheets, e-mail, news and press articles, technical journals and reports, contracts, web documents

Working with tacit and explicit knowledge

Socialization: tacit to tacit (on the job training)

Externalization: tacit to explicit (articulation)

Combination: explicit to explicit (integration)

Internalization: explicit to tacit (understanding)

iii knowledge management3
III. Knowledge management

Benefits

Qualitative

Improving employees’ skills

Improving quality strategies

Improving core business processes

Developing customer relationships

Developing supplier relationships

Goal: expand firm’s knowledge of key drivers of customer satisfaction and business process excellence, strengthen skills to develop profitable growth strategies

iii knowledge management4
III. Knowledge management

Benefits

Quantitative

Decreasing operation costs

Decreasing product cycle time

Increasing productivity

Increasing market share

Increasing shareholder equity

Increasing patent income

iii knowledge management5
III. Knowledge management

KM is embodied, practical and on-going and should be embedded in the organization with clear business objectives to deliver commercial benefits

It should link to organizational structures, business processes and IT and account for cultural and human issues

Applications should have practical, measurable steps that deliver concrete results and support formal and informal networks

Identify, map, codify and capture knowledge so it can be accessed, shared, and applied

iii knowledge management6
III. Knowledge management

A process model of establishing knowledge management: Insights from a longitudinal field study

Kjaergaard and Kautzinvestigate the process of establishing a knowledge management system focusing on how relevant stakeholders make sense of a situation

They see KM as a “autonomous venturing process” and use this concept to explain why the attempt to establish KM failed

~ What does sense making have to do with the process of establishing KM?

~ From their point of view, why did the process fail?

iii knowledge management7
III. Knowledge management

They studied a process by which a company tried to get KM up and running

Focus on individuals and knowledge related processes rather than on ICT

18 month ethnography in a Danish high-tech firm as people tried to implement KM in the value chain

Led to a range of bottom up activities

An intranet, an in-house KM consulting unit, and an effort to better use knowledge coming from value chain partners

Kjaergaard, A. and Kautz, K. (2008). A process model of establishing knowledge management: Insights from a longitudinal field study. Omega, 36(2), 282-297.

iii knowledge management8
III. Knowledge management

Process began with KM as information systems

Expanding existing systems and ability to store data

KM as organizational practice

Included as an activity within a new marketing and sales unit

New ways to communicate and share knowledge

KM as process integration

Seen as a subroutine within other activities such as product launches and marketing promotions

It fades into the background

iii knowledge management9
III. Knowledge management

Framework: KM venturing

Accounting for the bottom up development

Involves creating initiatives, negotiating to stabilize them, formalizing for buy in

Autonomous strategic action and sense making (enactment) play roles here

Action attitude

Initial excitement changed over time into resentment

Perceived managerial inaction

Systematic lack of interest and support

iii knowledge management10
III. Knowledge management

Relationship between intellectual capital and knowledge management: An empirical investigation

Hsu and Sabherwai argue that there is an unexplored relationship between IC and KM that influences business processes

KM facilitates innovation but not capabilities of IC

A learning culture facilitates IC and innovation but not KM

~ How do KM and IC improve firm performance?

~ As a manager, what lessons can you take from this research?

iii knowledge management11
III. Knowledge management

They assume that intellectual capital and knowledge management are distinct but interrelated sources of competitive advantage

KM: doing what is needed to get the most out of explicit and tacit knowledge resources

Focus: the processes and practices for managing IC

IC captures the sum of all knowledge firms utilize for competitive advantage

Focus: examining the nature of organizational knowledge and how it affects firm performance

Hsu, I.C. and Sabherwai, R. (2012). Relationship between Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management: An Empirical Investigation. Decision Sciences, 43(3), 489-524

iii knowledge management12
III. Knowledge management

They wanted to find out how IC and KM affect firm performance when both aspects are considered

When both KM and IC are considered, through which mediating factors do they affect firm performance?

How do KM and IC affect each other?

How does organizational culture affect IC?

Does a learning culture facilitate organizational knowledge and IC?

Does a learning culture facilitate KM directly, or through IC?

iii knowledge management13
III. Knowledge management

IC refers to the sum of all the organization's knowledge resources, which exist within or outside the organization

Includes of human capital, and structural capital, which includes organizational and customer capital

Human capital: the knowledge, skills, and capabilities of individual employees

Organizational capital:the institutionalized knowledge and codified experience residing in databases, manuals, culture, systems, structures, and processes

Social capital:the knowledge embedded in networks of relationships and interactions among individuals

iii knowledge management14
III. Knowledge management

KM: firms doing what is needed to get the most out of knowledge resources through acquisition, conversion, and application

Processes of acquiring new knowledge, converting it into a usable and easily accessed form, and applying it

Acquisition: developing new knowledge from data, information, or knowledge

Conversion: making acquired knowledge useful by structuring or transforming tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge

Application: using knowledge to perform tasks (the party applying it does not have to understand it

iii knowledge management15
III. Knowledge management

How IC affects KM

Social capital facilitates KM: interpersonal interactions enable knowledge integration, within-firm knowledge sharing, interfirm knowledge transfer, and knowledge creation

Human capital enables KM: individuals can develop appropriate and needed KM processes and use their knowledge to improve KM

Organizational capital enables KM: various forms including transactive memory systems, organizational structure, and IT can be leveraged in developing KM processes

iii knowledge management16
III. Knowledge management

Firm performance: the extent to which business objectives are achieved

Efficiency: the organization’s ability to achieve the same level of output with a lower level of input, or achieve a greater level of output with the same level of input

KM can enhance efficiency by reducing the need to transfer knowledge

Knowledge sharing reduces or eliminates redundancy in knowledge creation or learning

Enables productivity through acquisition, conversion, and application of knowledge possessed by others

iii knowledge management17
III. Knowledge management

Dealing with data: Science librarians' participation in data management at Association of Research libraries institutions

Federal agencies including NSF and NIH now require that funding proposals have data management plans

The authors survey science librarians to find out their state of readiness for working on DM planning.

~ What skills do science librarians need to handle the increasing demand for data management?

~ What are the impacts of open access to data on scientific research and what is the role of the science librarian in this process?

iii knowledge management18
III. Knowledge management

Funding agency mandates for formal data management are recent

NSF: researchers must include a data management plan with their proposals (since 2011)

Includes information about the types of data and metadata to be gathered in the course of the research

Policies and provisions for re-use of the data

Plans for long-term data archiving

NIH did this in 2003

Antell, K., Foote, J.B., Turner, J., and Shults, B. (2013). Dealing with data: Science librarians' participation in data management at Association of Research libraries institutions. College and Research Libraries.

iii knowledge management19
III. Knowledge management

Academic libraries now deal with data management issues with science librarians in the lead

Survey of science librarians finds uncertainty and optimism

Uncertainty about the roles and skills required and involvement of other organizations

Optimism about applying “traditional” skills to this emerging field of academic librarianship

Librarians already have expertise for many DM tasks

Organizing information, applying metadata standards, providing access to information

iii knowledge management20
III. Knowledge management

Concepts

E-science: large scale science that will be carried out through distributed global collaborations enabled by the net

Data curation: the process of examining, testing and selecting information to be deposited into a database (scientist)

The intent to store, provide access, preserve, and carry forward into the future with assurance that the data will be accessible and retrievable for future verification or use (librarian)

iii knowledge management21
III. Knowledge management

A 16-question online survey emailed it in September 2012 to 507 science librarians at 116 ARL academic libraries

Results

Widespread awareness of the NSF DM mandate

Many have IRs and 60% provide DM assistance to researchers

25% of schools have DRs; 25% planning to have one

The library is the lead institution on most campuses and many work with their campus IT organization

iii knowledge management22
III. Knowledge management

Results

A typical team has five or fewer librarians

40% said that their job already had DM tasks and 20% said it was coming

Helping scientists understand the mandate and identify appropriate IRs/DRs

Helping them develop DM plans

Working with data sets

Need to understand the data lifecycle and metadata

strategic information management and leadership practice3
Strategic information management and leadership practice

I. ICT, work, and communication

• Management and internal and external practices

• Communities of practice

II. System success and failure

• Customer relationship management

III. Knowledge management

• KM and intellectual capital

• KM and data management

IV. SIML careers

• Proactive management

iv siml careers
IV. SIML careers

According to the BLS, earnings for computer and IS managers vary by specialty and level of responsibility

Systems analysts, DB administrators, and computer scientists are among the fastest growing occupations through 2012

Employment is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations as organizations continue to adopt and integrate increasingly sophisticated IT

2002 median annual earnings: $85,240

The middle 50% earned between $64,150 and $109,950

The lowest 10% ($47,440) the highest 10% ( $140,440)

iv siml careers1
IV. SIML careers

Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of computer and information systems managers in 2002 were:

Computer systems design and related services $94,240

Management of companies and enterprises $91,710

Insurance carriers $89,920

Depository credit intermediation $75,160

Colleges, universities, and professional schools $68,100

iv siml careers2
IV. SIML careers

Dice, Inc’s2013 survey shows incremental increases in salaries

marketing.dice.com/pdf/Dice_TechSalarySurvey_2013.pdf

iv siml careers3
IV. SIML careers

Dice, Inc’s2013 survey shows incremental increases in salaries

marketing.dice.com/pdf/Dice_TechSalarySurvey_2013.pdf

iv siml careers5
IV. SIML careers

Proactive management

The pace of organizational change continues to increase

Ex: downsizing, outsourcing, merging, splitting, acquiring, partnering, and new organizational charts

Rapid structural change increases organizational uncertainty

For managers, this means that institutional roles and responsibilities are becoming less clear

The trend is towards outsourcing and contract work

They have to work harder to locate resources

iv siml careers6
IV. SIML careers

Organizational networks are more like temporary teams

People are brought together to accomplish a task and disperse when the task is done

The “intensional network” might include customers, vendors, contractors, consultants, business alliance partners, and workers in their own organizations

The network has a degree of persistence

Various configurations of the network can be reconvened when needed

Nardi, B.A., Whittaker, S. and Schwarz, H. (1999). It's not what you know, it's who you know: Work in the information age. First Monday. 5(5).

iv siml careers7
IV. SIML careers

The organizational context for these networks is shifting and dynamic

A wider and less predictable set of social relationships in which workers are implicated

Against this, managers work to maintain their networks:

Recruiting new labor or alliance partners

Establishing working relationships

Remembering who is in the network, what they are doing and where they are

Making careful media choices to communicate often, keeping in touch with contacts who may prove useful

iv siml careers8
IV. SIML careers

The work can be summarized as:

Building a network by adding new nodes (people)

Ensures that there will be available resources when it is time to conduct joint work

Maintaining the network

Central task is keeping in touch with extant nodes

Activating the network

Main task is to call upon and gather up selected nodes when the work is to be done

At any given time there is a set of nodes that is more active and others that are less active

iv siml careers9
IV. SIML careers

Proactive management is a new form of management minimizing surveillance

Reliance on a manager’s personal initiative to identify and solve problems

Proactive behavior is important in job performance

Taking initiative to improve a situation or create a new one

“In-role” behavior (fulfilling basic job requirements)

Extra-role behaviors can be proactive, such as redefining one’s role in the organization

Crant, J.M. (2000). Proactive behavior in organizations. Journal of Management, 26(3) 435-463.

iv siml careers10
IV. SIML careers

A model of proactive behavior

Individual differences General actions

Predispositions Context specific Actual behaviors behaviors

Decision to be proactive

Contextual triggers Outcomes

Uncertainty Organizational Norms about Personal proactive behavior

iv siml careers11
IV. SIML careers

Individual differences (predispositions)

Proactive personality: the desire to take action to change your environment

Links to job performance, career outcomes, leadership, innovation, team performance, and entrepreneurship

Personal initiative: taking an active, self-starting approach to work

Going beyond formal job requirements in a way consistent with the organizational mission

Having a long-term focus: being action and goal oriented and persistent in the face of obstacles

iv siml careers12
IV. SIML careers

Role breadth self-efficacy: perceived capability to carry out a broad and proactive set of work tasks beyond prescribed requirements

It changes as environment and organizational experiences change

Taking charge: willingness to challenge the status quo to bring about constructive change

Constructive efforts to effect functional change with respect to how work is executed

It is change-oriented and geared toward improvement

iv siml careers13
IV. SIML careers

Context-specific proactive behaviors

Socialization

Actions new employees take to integrate themselves into the organization and work group

Information seeking as proactive behavior

Seeking feedback

Gathering information about performance by direct inquiry and monitoring and inference

These are balanced against defensive impression management behaviors

iv siml careers14
IV. SIML careers

Issue selling

Influencing the strategy formulation process by calling attention to and influencing peers’ understanding of particular issues

It is voluntary, discretionary and takes place early in the decision-making process

Coping with stress

Proactive coping occurs when people take actions in advance of a potentially stressful event to prevent or modify it before it happens

iv siml careers15
IV. SIML careers

Stages of proactive coping:

Resource accumulation

Obtaining organizational skills or social support

Recognition that a potentially stressful event is likely to occur

Initial appraisal of the current and potential status of the potential stressor

Initial coping efforts designed to prevent or minimize the stressor

Elicitation and use of feedback about the development of the stressful event

iv siml careers16
IV. SIML careers

Innovation

The production, adoption, and implementation of useful ideas

It includes the adaptation of products or processes from outside an organization

It begins with problem recognition and the generation of novel or adopted ideas or solutions

Then the manager seeks sponsorship for the idea and attempts to build a coalition of supporters for it

These activities result in some prototype or model of the innovation that can be used by the organization

iv siml careers17
IV. SIML careers

Career management

Dynamic, continuous environmental change has created new employment settings

Organizations and careers are becoming boundaryless

People engaging in these careers must proactive in career management and approach to lifelong learning

They become responsible for their own career development

They will constantly be adding new skills to increase their value in the marketplace

iv siml careers18
IV. SIML careers

Career management is crucial for building networks and coping with challenges, adjustments, and successes

Career planning: taking action to make career changes

This involves environmental scanning

Skill development: mastering the various tasks involved in one's occupation

Often on your own

Consultation behavior: seeking information, advice, or help from mentors

Networking behavior: building interpersonal networks to seek information, advice, or help