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What is strategic information management and leadership?. I. Information management • Where it came from and how it works II. Strategy • Conceptions of strategy III. Project and knowledge management • Practices and evaluation

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what is strategic information management and leadership
What is strategic information management and leadership?

I. Information management

• Where it came from and how it works

II. Strategy

• Conceptions of strategy

III. Project and knowledge management

• Practices and evaluation

IV. Concepts of management

• Leadership

• Managing stability and change

i information management
I. Information management

Where it came from

We gain a more complete view of “organizing” by taking information and meaning as critical resources

Organizations operate on these resources

Direct their processes towards them, and

Establish relations on the basis of what they learn from them

If the organizational environment is described in terms of information, the task of “organizing” is to resolve the equivocality in informational inputs judged to be relevant

Weick, K. (1969) The Social Psychology of Organizing. p. 28-9

i information management1
I. Information management

Management: the allocation of resources to further the goals of an organization

Resources include capital, people, space and time

Given the organization’s goals, the managerial problem is:

Deciding what services or products to offer and allocating limited resources to do this

It includes the knowledge and practices resolve this problem


i information management2
I. Information management

Why management is so important

Organizations have grown in size and complexity

They have become distributed

The future seems to be one of increasing competition and decreasing budgets

Increasing competition increases pressures for operational efficiency

It also increases the pressure for innovation and increased productivity

Managers will be challenged to maintain reasonable levels of service with fewer resources

i information management3
I. Information management

If information is a critical resource, its management is a critical organizational function

Traditional view: islands of information

Marketing Accounting Human resources


i information management4
I. Information management

Information resources management (IRM) is a subset of Management Information Systems (MIS)

Early 1980s: information, IT, and the people who use them are valuable resources to be managed

IRM uses information for the benefit of the organization by exploiting, developing and optimizing information resources

It is a managerial link connecting corporate information resources with organizational goals and objectives

It is a major strategic responsibility of managerial end users and traditional IS management

i information management5
I. Information management

Information resources management looks for ways to integrate islands of information

Marketing Human resources

Shared Information



i information management6
I. Information management

Why IM is important

It is an engine driving the information economy

It will continue to have a profound impact on productivity management, and competitive advantage

It is an integral part of corporate strategy and can be used to gain competitive advantages in the marketplace

IM and information resources management affect all functional areas and all management levels in an organization

A key to strategy and source of competitive advantage

i information management7
I. Information management

Traditional information management techniques include

Formal planning

Centralized decision making

Standardized procedures

Quantitative control systems

They are intended to maintain status quo

Organizational predictability

Operational efficiency

They tend to limit flexibility and hamper innovation, creativity and change

i information management8
I. Information management

Modern information management (IM)

It has several main requirements

Information must be treated as a corporate asset

It must be properly used to increase profitability and strategic positioning

IM seeks to:

Improve operational efficiency

Promotes innovative products and services

Improves competitiveness

i information management9
I. Information management

To succeed with IM, the responsibility for managing information resources should be extended to all management levels and all functional areas

Goal: to unify and integrate existing IT in the company

IM should also explore new IT and applications for the company

The organization must adapt its overall strategic plan to ensure that IM goals are incorporated

IM planning must be aligned with organizational strategic goals

The IM plan should apply across the organization

what is strategic information management and leadership1
What is strategic information management and leadership?

I. Information management

• Where it came from and how it works

II. Strategy

• Conceptions of strategy

III. Project and knowledge management

• Practices and evaluation

IV. Concepts of management

• Leadership

• Managing stability and change

ii strategy
II. Strategy

Conceptions of strategy

Approaches to strategy can be descriptive or prescriptive

How organizations use degrees of freedom to maneuver through their environments

Strategy is the direction and scope of an organization over the long-term

It achieves advantage for the organization through its configuration of resources within a challenging environment, to meet the needs of markets and fulfill stakeholder expectations

Johnson and Scholes (2001). Exploring Corporate Strategy. Prentice Hall www.qmss.jp/strategy/images/pictures/original/strategy.jpg

ii strategy1
II. Strategy

Strategic questions:

Where is the business trying to get to in the long-term?

Which markets should a business compete in and what kind of activities are involved in such markets?

How can the business perform better than the competition in those markets?

What resources (skills, assets, finance, relationships, competencies, facilities) are required to compete?

What external, environmental factors affect the businesses' ability to compete?


ii strategy2
II. Strategy

Corporate: concerned with the purpose and scope of the business and meeting stakeholder expectations

Heavily influenced by investors

Guides strategic decision-making throughout the business (mission statement)

Business unit: how it competes successfully in particular markets

Decisions about product mix, competitive advantage, customer needs, exploiting/creating opportunities…

Operational: concerned with how subunits are organized to implement strategy (resources, processes, people…)

ii strategy3
II. Strategy

Strategy as design (60-70s)

Seeking a fit between internal strengths and weaknesses and external opportunities and threats

These can be diagrammed

A deliberate and reflective process resulting in simple, clear directives used as the basis for action

SWOT analysis is one basis of competitive intelligence

It is a business development analysis tool

Used to compare a product or service offering with current marketplace conditions

ii strategy4
II. Strategy

SWOT Analysis

Internal Strengths Weaknesses

External Opportunities Threats

ii strategy5
II. Strategy

Strategy as planning (60-70s)

This is a formal process

It is rational and can be broken down into steps

Checklists, objectives

Plans, budgets


It assumes that decisions can be made on the basis of complete information

The planner becomes a new position in the org chart

ii strategy6
II. Strategy

Strategy as positioning (70-90s)

Organization’s situation reduced to a generic position

The range of possible positions is derived from the history of military strategy

A formalized analysis of the competitive environment

It is heavily data driven

The role of the planner shifts to analyst

Popularized by Porter in the 80s

The value-chain is an important concept

This is the basis of many consulting companies

ii strategy7
II. Strategy

Porter’s five forces framework determines industry attractiveness and long-run industry profitability

Threat of entry of new competitors

Depends on barriers to entry

Threat of substitutes, lock-in and switching costs

Buyer’s bargaining to create demand

Supplier’s bargaining power to set costs

Degree of rivalry between existing competitors

A range of factors determine the intensity of competition

ii strategy8
II. Strategy

Porter’s five forces model


ii strategy9
II. Strategy

Joan Magretta: What executives can learn from revisiting Michael Porter

Magretta explains the significance of Porter's work for corporate strategic thinking

She emphasizes the importance of the firm's value proposition and its value chain as bases for sound strategy

~ Does her explanation make sense when considering the rivalry between Microsoft and Apple?

~ Why, for Porter, is bigger not always necessarily better?

ii strategy10
II. Strategy

Porter’s frameworks provide an economic foundation of competition and strategy

The fundamental relationships between profitability and the choices companies make as they compete

Strategy is linked to financial performance but is not simply marketing

It must make clear what a firm will not do

The sign of a good strategy is that it deliberately makes some customers unhappy

Allio, R.J. and Fahey, L. (2012). Joan Magretta: what executives can learn from revisiting Michael Porter. Strategy & Leadership, 40(2) pp. 5 - 10

ii strategy11
II. Strategy

Competitive advantage: compared to rivals, you operate at lower cost, command a premium price, or both

This ability arises from the activities in the value chain

It is the result of specific choices about the value chain, that shift relative price or relative cost in your favor

A value proposition requires a specifically tailored value chain to deliver it

Good five forces analysis allows you to see through the complexity of competition

It opens the way to actions that can improve performance

ii strategy12
II. Strategy

Porter finds no systematic evidence to support the view that industry leaders are the most profitable firms

Economies of scale are exhausted at a relatively small share of industry sales

Companies only have to be ‘‘big enough,’’ which rarely means they have to dominate

Pursuing size means they are likely to damage their own performance

By cutting price to gain volume, by overextending themselves to serve all market segments, and by pursuing overpriced mergers and acquisitions

ii strategy13
II. Strategy

Price competition: a sustainable low-cost strategy with a value chain rivals can’t easily copy or neutralize

When they imitate each other’s products and services, price is the only dimension on which customers choose

The real point of competition is not to beat rivals, or win a sale - it is to earn profits

Customers are just one player, with suppliers, existing rivals, potential entrants, and producers of substitutes

Sustainable profitability means creating economic value, using resources effectively to meet customer needs

ii strategy14
II. Strategy

Strategy as a social process (80-00s)

Formation involves the pursuit of the common interest

It is rooted in cultural processes

This means that the successful strategies of one organization may not translate to an organization in another culture

Strategy as an environmental reactive process (80-00s)

Organizations are reactive and the demands of the environment are key factors in strategy formation

Contingency theory

ii strategy15
II. Strategy

Strategy as configuration (90s-00)

This is an integrative approach

Organizations are configurations that face different situations and environments

Strategy formation varies with the unit and situation

Planning in times of stability

Entrepreneurship in times of change

Power in times of conflict and confrontation

The implication is that organizations are transformed as they shift from state to state

what is strategic information management and leadership2
What is strategic information management and leadership?

I. Information management

• Where it came from and how it works

II. Strategy

• Conceptions of strategy

III. Project and knowledge management

• Practices and evaluation

IV. Concepts of management

• Leadership

• Managing stability and change

iii project and knowledge management
III.Project and knowledge management

Project management practice, generic or contextual: A reality check

Based on a survey of 750 project managers, Besner and Hobbs found that some elements of project management practice were generic and others varied significantly by application area

They focus on the tools and techniques that vary by project type and application area

~ Why do project managers in different types of situations use similar tools?

~ What is the value of this type of study for the field?

iii project and knowledge management1
III. Project and knowledge management

The focus here will be project management

Importance of the book: A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide)

Generally accepted to define “good practice”

The knowledge, tools and techniques applicable to most projects most of the time

How they put in action knowledge and competencies

Understanding practice is a key to theory building about the profession

Besner, C. and Hobbs, B. (2008). Project management practice, generic or contextual: A reality check. Project Management Journal, 39(1), 16-33.

iii project and knowledge management2
III. Project and knowledge management

A generic view of project management


iii project and knowledge management3
III. Project and knowledge management


iii project and knowledge management4
III. Project and knowledge management

Which of the tools and techniques are generic and which vary across application areas?

To what extent does organizational support for the use of these tools and techniques vary?

This research provides a snapshot of current PM professional practice

Research shows that organizations categorize projects to apply different tools to different types

There is variability of PM practice by project type, application area and other contextual factors

How much and what kinds?

iii project and knowledge management5
III. Project and knowledge management

Managers were surveyed in four main project areas

Engineering and construction, business services, IT and telecom (largest), industrial services

Out of 70 tools, 23 were limited to extensive use

Progress report, kick-off meeting (not in PMBOK), PM scheduling software, GANTT chart, scope statement

14 were in less than very limited use

Monte-Carlo analysis (PMBOK says frequently used), PM simulation software, Pareto diagram, critical chain methodology, decision tree

One reason is lack of organizational support

iii project and knowledge management6
III. Project and knowledge management

Differences in use depended on degree of maturity of PM in the organization

Older companies, larger projects (>1 million), more involvement with external customers

Significantly more frequent use of most of the tools

Otherwise, the rankings remain stable

Some tools are used more often for well-defined projects

There is also variation across the project types

What does this mean for project managers?

iii project and knowledge management7
III. Project and knowledge management

Innovative practices for IT projects

The authors interview 57 project managers and find that when involved in difficult projects, respondents develop "creative and entrepreneurial" strategies for completing these projects

Traditional PM practices were points of departure

~ What has changed in PM work that has led to what the authors call a new realism among project managers?

~ To what extent do project managers use the PMBOK when faced with difficult projects?

iii project and knowledge management8
III. Project and knowledge management

Project managers’ performance is improving over time

Despite projects that are becoming more complex technically and organizationally

Realism and a common diagnosis: PM has weaknesses

Inattention to the importance of customers

Narrow definition of PM with asingle-minded focus on a fixed set of tools and techniques largely derived from the PMBOK

Leads to a more innovative type of PM practice

Reich, B.H., Sauer, C. and Wee, S.Y. (2008). Innovative practices for IT projects. Information Systems Management, 25(3), 266-272.

iii project and knowledge management9
III. Project and knowledge management

They interviewed 57 PMs who use these practices when

The client or project organization is complex

Requirements are not well understood

Changes in industry or business strategy occur

Technology is immature

Goal definition

Challenge the customer (who is not always right)

Goal clarity, matching goals to deliverables, improving the business case

Deliver value early instead of at the end

iii project and knowledge management10
III. Project and knowledge management

Project set up

Create a resilient team by playing a more active role in selection

Hire team players from their own networks

Double up the team with people who can cover for each other

Prepare for the unknown

Practice low-stakes problem solving

Prepare and think through worst-case scenarios

Set up “lifelines” and “connectors”

iii project and knowledge management11
III. Project and knowledge management

Project set up

Train the sponsor

Get to know sponsor's goals, constraints, competence level

Help him/her understand the big picture

Focus the team on business value

Make sure they see the value for the sponsor and can link goals to deliverables

Plan for post-delivery

Be ready to deal with post-implementation issues

iii project and knowledge management12
III. Project and knowledge management

Project execution

Adaptively re-plan

Make rapid adjustments to the project plan as the circumstances change

Use meetings to focus attention

Foreground problems and determine who will solve them

Create a culture to encourage dissent

Empower and delegate

what is strategic information management and leadership3
What is “strategic information management and leadership”?
  • Information management

• Where it came from and how it works

II. Strategy

• Conceptions of strategy

III. Project and knowledge management

• Practices and evaluation

IV. Concepts of management

• Leadership

• Managing stability and change

iv concepts of management
IV. Concepts of management

What is leadership

A quality involving the ability to influence others and to mobilize them into action

An ability to think creatively in non-routine situations

Having a vision and the ability to communicate it to followers

There have been a number of approaches that have tried to explain it

However: the quality of leadership is essential to the survival of most groups and organizations

iv concepts of management1
IV. Concepts of management

The importance of effective communication


iv concepts of management2
IV. Concepts of management

Theories of classical leadership

Trait theories: developing a checklist of qualities of leaders

Vitality, stamina, intelligence, competence, self- confidence, assertiveness…

Research is mixed on the importance of a fixed set of personality traits across situations

Behavioral theories: developing a checklist of leadership activities grouped into styles

Concern for task objectives; concern for people, directive leadership; participative leadership

iv concepts of management3
IV. Concepts of management

Situational theories: understand the changing contexts within which leadership is exercised

Contingency: style and extent to which they can exercise control in the situation

What matters: relations between leaders and followers, structure of the task, power involved in position

Research indicates that cultural variables make a difference and these are beginning to be accounted for in this approach

May be gender differences as well

iv concepts of management4
IV. Concepts of management

Action-embedded transformational leadership in self-managing global information technology teams

The authors investigate software development teams to understand the role of leadership in self-organizing teams

They uncover a new type: action-embedded transformational leadership

~ What are the conditions under which this type of leadership is most effective?

~ Have you ever experienced this type of leadership and if so, what is your perspective on it?

iv concepts of management5
IV. Concepts of management

Distributed, self-organizing and self-managed teams are becoming much more common

Question: how leaders emerge and strategically influence systems development in self-managing global IS development teams?

Self-managing teams: interdependent individuals with collective authority and responsibility of managing and performing relatively whole tasks to achieve group goals

Globally distributed with a high degree of decision- making autonomy and behavioral control

Eseryel, U.Y., and Eseryel, D. (2013). Action-embedded transformational leadership in self-managing global information technology teams. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems..

iv concepts of management6
IV. Concepts of management

Transformational leadership: provides a mobilizing vision, encouraging people to transcend self-interest

Idealized influence: degree to which leaders are admired, respected, trusted; charismatic leadership

Inspirational motivation: provides meaning and challenge, team spirit, envisions attractive future

Intellectual stimulation: prompts followers to question assumptions and be creative

Individual consideration: the extent to which followers’ potential is developed by attending to individual needs, learning opportunities

iv concepts of management7
IV. Concepts of management

Transformational leaders influence followers with communication, through which they set a vision and high standards and

Increase team cohesion improve chances for success

Act as an appropriate role model

Create high performance expectations

Foster the acceptance of group goals

Reduce social loafing

Increase member performance

Transformational leadership creates an innovative IS climate

iv concepts of management8
IV. Concepts of management

Findings: action-embedded transformational leadership

Individuals emerge as leaders through their consistently noteworthy contributions to their team over extended periods of time

Also through the inspiration they provide other team members

The actions of these perceived leaders help convey and put in place strongly held beliefs and values

Their actions stimulate innovative problem solving

They are seen as protecting the team from oputside interference

iv concepts of management9
IV. Concepts of management

They lead by doing the work and participating in the community

They have a high level view of the project and are seen as guardians of the project

They do what is good for the project and avoid behaviors that would hurt it or damage its community

Transformational leaders explicitly use role modeling in order to compensate for lack of formal authority over others

Perceived leaders’ work contributes directly to team effectiveness, and these leaders transform the technological vision

iv concepts of management10
IV. Concepts of management

The challenge of leadership

Knowledge based organizations face serious challenges in the modern economy

Disruptive technologies

ICTs are changing the conduct of business


Markets cross international boundaries

Creation of wealth

It has shifted from capital to information intensive businesses

iv concepts of management11
IV. Concepts of management

Challenge: how to manage an organization that can handle continuous adaptation to change

Without losing strategic focus

Transactional leaders work with their systems

Focus on rewards and exchanges in the organization

They try to meet the needs of their employees

This is a form of cultural maintenance

Charismatic leaders use the force of their personalities

They tend to be persistent and committed to their long term goals

iv concepts of management12
IV. Concepts of management

What do leaders do?

Conflict management: identify and take steps to prevent situations that could result in unpleasant confrontations

Manage and resolve conflicts in a positive and constructive manner to minimize negative impact

Promote diversity: recruit, develop, and retain a diverse high quality workforce in an equitable manner

Lead and manage an inclusive workplace to maximize talents of each person to achieve sound business results

iv concepts of management13
IV. Concepts of management

Team building: inspire, motivate, and guide others toward goals

Develop and sustain cooperative working relationships

Encourage and facilitate cooperation within the organization and with customers

Develop leadership in others by coaching, mentoring, rewarding, and guiding employees

Service orientation: create and sustain culture which encourages others to provide high quality of service

Enable others to acquire the tools and support they need to perform well

iv concepts of management14
IV. Concepts of management

Articulating a vision for the organization

Leaders provide a realistic vision and mission for the organization

It addresses the needs of all of the stakeholders

It requires depth knowledge of the organization and competitive environment

What the organization is --> what is can become --> how it will get there

The organizational mission is a framework for action

It must articulate shared values and goal and appeal to the major stakeholders

iv concepts of management15
IV. Concepts of management

Leadership in organizational knowledge creation: A review and framework

The authors argue that there is a gap in the research and that we don’t understand the role of leadership in KM

They offer a new framework that introduces distributed leadership as a way to explain how knowledge is created in organizations

~ Does this framework make sense?

~ It is possible for to establish top[-down strategies for increasing the chances of spontaneous collaborations among employees?

iv concepts of management16
IV. Concepts of management

Organizational knowledge creation integrates context, knowledge assets, and creation processes throughout the organization

The process of making available and amplifying knowledge created by individuals

Also crystallizing and connecting it with an organization’s knowledge system

A continuous process where individual boundaries are transcended and a new context, a new view of the world, and new knowledge are acquired

Krogh, G., IkujiroNonaka, I. and Rechsteiner, L. (2012). Leadership in organizational knowledge creation: A review and framework. Journal of Management Studies, 49(1), 240-277

iv concepts of management17
IV. Concepts of management


Socialization: the sharing and conversion of tacit knowledge through the shared experiences of individual

Externalization: the articulation of tacit into explicit knowledge

Combination: the process of combining different strands of explicit knowledge to create more complex or systematic sets of knowledge

Internalization: the process of embodying explicit into tacit knowledge

iv concepts of management18
IV. Concepts of management

The organizational context for knowledge creation is “ba” (Japanese for ‘place’)

A shared space for interaction that can be physical, mental, or virtual

It is the locus of meaning-making, as all knowledge is situated within its social, historical, or cultural context

It contains boundaries and possibilities for knowledge creation through interactions between individuals, even if these change over time

Moderated by ‘knowledge assets’, organization- specific resources indispensable for creating value

iv concepts of management19
IV. Concepts of management

A new framework for situational leadership in organizational knowledge creation

Based on a continuum that ranges from centralized to distributed leadership at three layers of activity

A core layer of local knowledge creation

A conditional layer that provides the resources and context for knowledge creation

A structural layer that forms the overall frame and direction for knowledge creation in the organization

Responsibility for leadership functions will be distributed in various ways throughout the organization

iv concepts of management20
IV. Concepts of management

Leadership is embedded in a practice

The shift towards distributed leadership in organizations is warranted

New divisions of labour, new interdependencies and coordination between tasks

The extensive use of technology

Multiple team practices that shape knowledge-intensive work

It is an outcome of cooperation between individuals

It is seen in shared direction, the alignment of behavior, and mutual commitment to a particular practice

iv concepts of management21
IV. Concepts of management

Collaboration between individuals is an essential part of organizational knowledge creation

Mostly planned and directed through organizational structures, processes, and mechanisms

Yet, knowledge creation often involves spontaneous collaboration between individuals and teams

Practitioners pool explicit and tacit knowledge and mutually adjust conduct to tackle tasks in a creatively

Common to these forms is flexibility

Each provides a new context in which knowledge creation emerges spontaneously to solve a task, instigate change, or innovate

iv concepts of management22
IV. Concepts of management

Authority is a key dimension in leadership theories

Distributed leadership assumes we exchange authority so joint leadership becomes a shared role

We acquire positions of authority through knowledge, understanding of tasks, and formulation of problems and solutions

It originates in our charisma, consideration of others’ viewpoints, and timing in bringing knowledge to bear on tasks

Given to those who can manage ‘contradictions’ between new and existing knowledge

Hinges on skills that matter in knowledge creation practices

iv concepts of management23
IV. Concepts of management

Managing stability and change: there is a continual and normal tension between the two in organizational life

Institutional inertia: organizations tend to do things as they have in the past

Stability is good: critical thinking is not needed to do the work

It’s bad: new information won’t penetrate well established and dense networks of relationships

Existing power structures tend to be self-perpetuating, solidifying relationships and practices in organizations

Leana, C.R. (2000). Stability and change as simultaneous experiences in organizational life. Academy of Management Review, 25(4), pp. 753-760.

iv concepts of management24
IV. Concepts of management

Transaction costs: organizations are a solution to inefficiencies and costs of transactions

Stability in employment is desirable because firms can invest in employee development

Security gives individuals a rationale for developing firm-specific skills and knowledge

Sustained advantage: organizations create sustained competitive advantage by acquiring and linking resources in ways easily imitated

These relationships depend on stable interactions, and can be destroyed by uncertainty and change

iv concepts of management25
IV. Concepts of management

Organizational social capital

Organizations create long-term competitive advantage by building trust among coworkers and between employee and employer

This enhances employees' motivation and ability to achieve successful collective action

It is developed in stable work environments and is undermined by rapid, frequent, or unpredictable change

Predictability and uncertainty reduction

Stability enables rather than impedes change and flexibility becomes impossible to sustain in the face of constant uncertainty

iv concepts of management26
IV. Concepts of management

An emphasis on change is seen in many organizations

Reasons for change

Adaptability is necessary in a changing marketplace

Managers shift size and composition of the workforce to meet changing business needs

Cost containment can involve outsourcing nonessential processes, downsizing, minimizing the number of core employees

The fewer core processes and workers it has, the easier it can respond to changes in the market

This may disrupt the firm, but do generate cost saving

iv concepts of management27
IV. Concepts of management

Financial capital markets have become increasingly impatient

Investors demand immediate returns from investments that are held for shorter periods of time

Managers face pressures to meet short-term financial targets and adapt to these changing demands

Competitive advantage

An organization gains advantage by quickly changing its form, employee head count, and work processes in response to changing market demands

Responsiveness can become a competitive advantage

iv concepts of management28
IV. Concepts of management

Control: organizations geared toward continuous change are less hierarchical and centralized

This means they exert less controlling over the individuals who work for them

Changing work arrangements allow management to consolidate power and control without centralizing it

In flexible organizations managers set performance targets, rather than impose direction

If these targets are sufficiently challenging, employees have little choice in the behaviors they engage in to reach them

iv concepts of management29
IV. Concepts of management

To manage stability and change, leaders need:

Continual learning: to quickly grasp the essence of new information

To master new technical and business knowledge

To recognize own strengths and weaknesses and seek feedback from others

Creativity and innovation: to develop new insights and innovative solutions to make improvements

To create a work environment that encourages creative thinking and innovation

Abell, A. (2000). Skills for knowledge environments. Information Management Journal, 34(3), pp.33-41.

iv concepts of management30
IV. Concepts of management

External awareness

Keep up to date on key national and international policies and economic, political, and social trends that affect the organization

Understand short- and long-range plans and how to achieve a competitive business advantage in the marketplace


Adapt to new information, changing conditions, or unexpected obstacles

Adjust rapidly to new situations warranting attention and resolution

iv concepts of management31
IV. Concepts of management

Strategic thinking: formulate effective strategies consistent with the business and competitive strategy of the organization

Examine policy issues and strategic planning with a long-term perspective

Determine objectives and sets priorities

Anticipate potential threats or opportunities.

Resilience: deal effectively with pressure

Maintain focus and intensity and remains optimistic and persistent under adversity

Recover quickly from setbacks