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The Muslim Empires. 1450-1800 Chapter 15 – Section 1. The Ottoman Empire. Ottoman dynasty started in late 13 th century under the leadership of Osman in the NW corner of Anatolian Peninsula.

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The muslim empires

The Muslim Empires


Chapter 15 – Section 1

The ottoman empire
The Ottoman Empire

  • Ottoman dynasty started in late 13th century under the leadership of Osman in the NW corner of Anatolian Peninsula.

  • Originally, OsmanTurks were peaceful but as Seljuk Empire began to decline (early 14th century) the Osman Turks began to expand

The ottoman s expand
The Ottoman’s Expand

  • In the 14th century, the Ottoman Turks expanded into the Balkans.

    • Sultan – Ottoman ruler’s title

  • Strong military was built up

    • Janissaries – elite guard

      • Recruited from the local Christian population in the Balkans – then converted to Islam and trained as foot soldiers or administrators to serve the sultan. (quest #2)

Mehmet ii or mehmed ii
Mehmet II or Mehmed II

  • Ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1451 to 1481

  • In 1453, he toppled the Byzantine Empire, capturing Constantinople, renaming it Istanbul, (quest #8) and making it the new Ottoman capital

  • Expanded the empire to become the ruler of “two lands” (Europe and Asia) and “two seas” (the Mediterranean and the Black)

Scene from the battle defending Constantinople from a 1499 painting

“What a city we have given over to plunder and destruction.”

Mehmet II when he saw the ruin inflicted on the city of Constantinople

(quest #3)

  • Sunni Muslim

Sultan selim i the grim
Sultan Program DVD #2Selim I (the Grim)

1514 – 1520

Sultan Selim I takes control over Mesopotamia, Egypt and Arabia – the original heartland of Islam religion

Includes several holy cities of:


Makkah (Mecca)


Sultan selim i
Sultan Program DVD #2Selim I

  • Declares himself the new “caliph” [key-lif, kal-if] – defender of the faith and successor to Muhammad (quest #4)

  • Spread Empire to North Africa

  • Pashas – appointed officials who collected taxes, maintained law and order and were directly responsible to the sultan’s court in Istanbul.

    (quest #5)

  • Sunni Muslim

Suleyman i the magnificent
Suleyman Program DVD #2I the Magnificent

  • Reigned from 1520 to 1566 and continued the expansion

  • Battle of Mohacs (1526) major victory over the Hungarians

  • Conquered Baghdad in 1534

  • Sunni Muslim

Suleyman mosque in istanbul
Suleyman Program DVD #2 Mosque in Istanbul

The Suleyman Mosque in

Istanbul. At the height of

the Ottoman Turkish

Empire's power in the

16th century, Sultan Suley-

man the Magnificent ordered

the construction of this

mosque. Surrounding the place

of prayer is a great complex of buildings that house schools, a library, a Turkish bath, a public kitchen, a caravanserai, a hospital and shops. This mosque was designed by the architect Sinan the Great and built in the years 1550 to 1557 A.D.

Turkish bath
Turkish Bath Program DVD #2

Differences between shia and sunni
Differences Between Shia and Sunni Program DVD #2

  • Shiites

    • About 15% of all Muslims

    • Islam’s leader should be a descendant of Mohammad

    • Qualified religious leaders have the authority to interpret the sharia (Islamic law)

  • Sunnis

    • About 85% of all Muslims

    • Leaders should be chosen through ijma, or consensus

    • The sharia was codified and closed by the 10th century

Nature of ottoman rule
Nature of Ottoman Rule Program DVD #2

  • Gunpowder empire – formed by outside conquerors who unified the regions that they conquered by mastering the technology of firearms (quest #6)

  • Sultan

    • Supreme authority in both

      • Political and

      • Military (quest #7)

    • Son always succeeded the father, not necessarily the oldest

  • caliph1. a spiritual leader of Islam, claiming succession from Muhammad.

    2. any of the former Muslim rulers of Baghdad (until 1258) and of the Ottoman Empire (from 1571 until 1924).

Sultan rule
Sultan Rule Program DVD #2

  • Topkapi – “iron gate” was the center of the sultan’s power

  • Built in 15th century by Mehmet II

  • It had an administrative purpose and served as the private residence of the ruler and his family. (like Versailles)

  • Harem – “sacred place” or private domain of the sultan and his wives

  • Grand Vizier – led the meetings of the imperial council. The sultan sat behind a screen and privately indicted his desires to the grand vizier. (similar to Prime Minister) (quest #9)

  • Empire was divided into provinces and districts, each governed by officials

  • Ulema – administered the legal system and schools for education

Ottoman society
Ottoman Society The sultan sat behind a screen and privately indicted his desires to the grand vizier. (similar to Prime Minister)

  • Four main occupation groups

    • Peasants (farmed leased land)

    • Artisans (organized by craft guild)

    • Merchants (most privileged class outside of ruling elite)

    • Pastoral peoples(nomadic herders)

  • Women were allowed to own and inherit property. They could not be forced into marriage and could seek divorce. (quest #10)

Ottoman society cont
Ottoman Society, cont. The sultan sat behind a screen and privately indicted his desires to the grand vizier. (similar to Prime Minister)

  • Officials and merchants began to imitate the habits and lifestyles of Europeans.

  • Wore European clothing

  • Coffee was introduced to Ottoman society and spread to Europe

  • Some sultans tried to counter these trends though

Ottoman art
Ottoman Art The sultan sat behind a screen and privately indicted his desires to the grand vizier. (similar to Prime Minister)

  • Sultans patrons of the Arts

  • From Mehmet II to early 18th century saw a flourish a pottery, rugs, silk, textiles, jewelry, arms and armor

  • Architecture was the greatest contribution of the Ottoman Empire to the world of art (quest #11)

  • Sinan (greatest Ottoman architect) built 81 mosques including the Suleimaniye Mosque in Istanbul

The rule of the safavids sah fah veed

The Rule of the The sultan sat behind a screen and privately indicted his desires to the grand vizier. (similar to Prime Minister) Safavids(sah-fah-veed)

Chapter 15, section 2

1700 The sultan sat behind a screen and privately indicted his desires to the grand vizier. (similar to Prime Minister)

Europe and asia today
Europe and Asia today The sultan sat behind a screen and privately indicted his desires to the grand vizier. (similar to Prime Minister)

Rise of the safavid dynasty
Rise of the The sultan sat behind a screen and privately indicted his desires to the grand vizier. (similar to Prime Minister) Safavid Dynasty

  • At the beginning of the 16th century, a new dynasty known as the Safavids

  • Unlike neighboring Islamic countries, the Safavids were Shiite Muslims.

  • Founder – Shah Ismail

    • Descendant of Safi al-Din (thus name Safavid)

    • Founded by Shah Ismail in 1501 and lasted until 1722

Shah ismail
Shah Ismail groups in Azerbaijan near the Caspian Sea. (early 14

  • Sent Shiite preachers to Ottoman Empire to convert members – against wishes of the Ottoman Sultan

  • He also ordered the massacre of Sunni Muslims in Baghdad in 1508.

  • Sultan Selim I of the Ottoman Empire advanced against the Safavids in Persia and won a major battle in Tabriz. Ismail later regained Tabriz

Battle of chaldiran
Battle of Chaldiran groups in Azerbaijan near the Caspian Sea. (early 14

  • The critical battle in this campaign was the battle of Chaldiran in 1514

  • The Ottomans won and temporarily occupied the Safavid capital of Tabriz but could not completely destroy the Safavid state

  • The Ottomans and Safavids continued to fight intermittingly for the next two centuries

Shah abbas 1588 1629
Shah Islam throughout Persia. Abbas 1588 -1629

  • Signed a peace treaty with the Ottoman’s after the Ottoman attack.

  • Lost much territory

  • Capital of Safavids moved to Isfahan from Tabriz

  • What led to fighting of the Ottomans and Safavids?

Shah abbas 1588 16291
Shah Islam throughout Persia. Abbas 1588 -1629

  • Reached height of glory

  • System similar to Janissaries was created to train administrators to help govern

  • Army strengthened with latest weapons

  • Moved against Ottomans in 17th century to try to regain territory

  • 1612 – peace treaty signed to regain Azerbaijan

  • Safavid Islam throughout Persia. Empire lost its vigor after death of Shah Abbas

  • Religious orthodoxy (traditional religious beliefs) was increased

    • Example – women forced to wear veils again

    • How did the Safavid Empire reach its pinnacle under Shah Abbas?

Shah hussein
Shah Hussein Islam throughout Persia.

  • Early 18th century

  • Afghan peoples invaded – seized the capital of Isfahan

  • Ruling family forced to retreat to Azerbaijan

Political and social structures
Political and Social Structures Islam throughout Persia.

  • Majority of people were Persian

  • Most were farmers or townspeople


Bureaucracy and landed classes

Common people

Role of the shah
Role of the Shah Islam throughout Persia.

  • Safavid rulers were supported by Shiite Muslims

  • Thought founder of empire (Shah Ismail) was a direct successor to the prophet Muhammad.

  • Shia Islam was the state religion

  • More available to subjects than other countries rulers

  • Controlled the aristocrats

Culture arts
Culture & Arts Islam throughout Persia.

  • Strong in science, medicine and mathematics

  • Saw growth of arts during 1588 – 1629 (Shah Abbas reign)

  • Mosques richly decorated

  • Palaces beautiful

  • Metalwork, elaborate tiles, delicate glass

  • Silk weaving

  • Carpet weaving flourished (Persian carpets in demand)

  • Riza-i-Abbasi – most famous artist

The grandeur of the moguls

The Grandeur of the Moguls Islam throughout Persia.

Chapter 15, section 3

Read: Islam throughout Persia.

  • The Conquests of Babur

  • Page 456 in book

Mogul dynasty
Mogul Dynasty Islam throughout Persia.

  • 1517 – established a new dynasty in area of India

  • Not natives of India – but came from mountainous region north of the Indus River valley.

  • Founder – Babur (Ruled1517 – 1530)

  • His forces crossed the Khyber Pass to India in 1517.

Babur Islam throughout Persia.

  • Forces much smaller but had advanced weapons including artillery

  • Captured Delhi and established his power in North India.

The reign of akbar 1556 1605
The Reign of Akbar 1556 - 1605 Islam throughout Persia.

  • Babur’s grandson

    • Only 14 when he ascended the throne

    • Intelligent

  • Mogul rule expanded to most of India

  • Used heavy artillery to get India under his rule

See page 474 Islam throughout Persia.

Akbar 1556 1605
Akbar 1556 - 1605 Islam throughout Persia.

  • Greatest of the conquering Mogul monarchs

  • Best known for humane character of his rule

  • Tolerate

Akbar Islam throughout Persia.

  • Muslim

    • Adopted a policy of religious tolerance

    • Tolerated Hindu practices

    • Welcomed Christian views by Jesuit advisers at court

    • Took a Hindu princess as one of his wives

Akbar s rule
Akbar’s Rule Islam throughout Persia.

  • Tolerant in administration of his government

    • Non-native Muslims filled upper ranks of government

    • Lower ranking positions were often Hindu.

    • Zamindars – local officials often received plots of farmland for temporary use

    • Zamindars had considerable power in their local district

Akbar era
Akbar Era Islam throughout Persia.

  • Time of progress

  • Heavy tax – 1/3 of annual harvest was given as tax

  • Prosperous with foreign trade

    • Included Indian goods, textiles, tropical food, spices, precious stones exported in exchange for gold and silver

Decline of the moguls
Decline of the Moguls Islam throughout Persia.

  • Jahangir (juh-HAN-GIHR) succeeded his father Akbar 1605 - 1628

  • Able and ambitious

  • Strengthened the central government’s control over the vast empire

  • Fell under influence of one of his wives – Persian-born NurJahan

Shah jahan 1628 1658
Shah Islam throughout Persia. Jahan 1628-1658

  • NurJahan had arranged a marriage of her neice to her husband’s third son and ultimate successor, Shah Jahan.

  • Shah Jahan expanded boundaries to include Deccan Plateau (southern Peninsula of India)

  • Failed to deal with domestic problems

  • Inherited empty treasury, but put heavy strain on treasury with military and expensive building projects – raised taxes

Shah aurangzeb crowns self
Shah Aurangzeb Crowns self Islam throughout Persia.

  • Shah Jahan Became ill in mid 1650’s.

    • Sons struggled for power during this time

  • Aurangzeb (son) killed brother and put father in (Shah Jahan) in prison

  • Crowned himself emperor in 1658

  • Notable expansionist of empire

  • Very wealthy

Shah aurangzeb 1658 1707
Shah Aurangzeb 1658 - 1707 Islam throughout Persia.

  • One of the most controversial rulers in the history of India

  • High principles

  • Tried to eliminate India’s “social evils.”

    • Forbade Hindu custom of suttee (cremating a widow on husband’s funeral pyre)

    • Forbade gambling and drinking

  • Devout Muslim

    • Reversed Mogul policies of religious tolerance

    • Hindus were forced to convert to Islam

Suttee or self cremation involves widows who voluntarily lie by her dead husband's side on his funeral pyre to be burnt alive with the corpse.

The british in india
The British in India Islam throughout Persia.

  • 1650 – British trading forts were established in Surat (now city of Calcutta)

  • Traded cotton for spices

  • Sir Robert Clive – Chief representative for East India Company

  • French also established their own forts on the east coast of India

  • See map p. 476

Mogul society
Mogul Society Islam throughout Persia.

  • Moguls were foreigners in India

  • Muslims ruling Hindus

  • As Hindus, women had an active role – for political advice, some fought on battlefields, some received salaries, some owned land and took part in business

  • Under Muslim rule – certain restrictions were put on women

Mogul culture
Mogul Culture Islam throughout Persia.

  • Two lifestyles – Indian and Persian coming together with beautiful architectural style

  • TajMahal – example of this

    • Built by the emperor Shah Jahan in the mid-17th century in memory of his wife – MumtaxMahal. She died at age 39 giving birth to 14thchild!

    • Employed 20,000 workers

    • Lasted more than 20 years to build

    • Considered most beautiful building in India

Mogul art
Mogul Art Islam throughout Persia.

  • Paintings also artistic achievement of Moguls

  • “Akbar style” – included the portrayal of humans in action – characteristic not seen in Persian art.

  • Imitated European art forms – including use of perspective and lifelike forms

  • Ottoman Empire map Islam throughout Persia.

  • Selim I

    Sultans picture

    Turkish bath

    Suttee picture and information