Microbiologists aspect of STI’s By Vicki Parr-Gallant & Jaime Tracey
Review Virus Bacteria Above Left-Virus Middle-Cocci Shaped Above Right-Spirilla Bottom Right-Bacilli
Viral Infections • Hepatovirus hepatitis • Herpesviridae-Herpes Simplex Virus • Papillomavirus-warts and genital warts • Human immunodeficiency virus • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Hepatovirus hepatitis • Disease Caused-Hepatitis A,B,C,D,E,F,G • Characteristics of Organisms- Virus • Related Disease-Liver Failure, Cancer, Serosis • Symptoms and disease development-Jaundice, Fatigue, Loss of Appetite • Diagnosis- Blood test looking for antibodies and/or antigens
Simplexvirus Herpes Simplex Virus • Characteristics of Organisms- Lytic • Related Disease-Eye infections, Infection to infant during birth • Disease development-Initial breakout, lies dormant in nerve cells until next breakout • Diagnosis- Looking at sores, Blood test for antibodies • Incidence- Class exercise • Transmission- Skin to skin contact • Treatment-No cure/Antiviral may help with breakouts
Papillomavirus • Disease Caused-Warts and Genital Warts • Related Disease-Cervical Cancer, Anal & Penile Cancer, Head & Neck Cancer • Symptoms and disease development-Warts, Abnormal Pap Smear • Diagnosis-Physical Exam, Pap Smear, Biopsy • Incidence-Class exercise • Transmission-Skin to skin contact • Treatment-Removal of visible lesions or prescribe cream, No cure for virus itself • Prevention-Gardasil & Cervarix – Protect against 4 of 20 strains found. Suspected 200 strains.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus • Disease Caused- Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome • Related Disease-Fungal disease, Bacterial Diseases, Protozoal Diseases, Viral, Malignancies • Diagnosis-Blood test • Incidence-On the rise • Transmission-Intercourse, Injection Drug uses, Blood to Blood contact, Mother to fetus, Via Breast Milk • Treatment-HIV Cocktail to slow disease progression • Prognosis-No Cure
HIV virion: • Attache to T-cell lymphocytes and macrophages (large glycoproteins) • Fuse with host cell (small gp glycoprotein) and viral capsid enters cell • Uncoats (break-down of capsid) in the host cell cytoplasm
Bacterial Infections • Chlamydia trachomatis-Chlamydia • TreponemaPallidum-Syphilis • NeisseriaGonorrhoeae-Gonorrhea
Chlamydia trachomatis • Disease Caused-Chlamydia • Characteristics of Organisms-Gram Negative • Related Disease-Urethritis, Proctitis, Infertilitiy, PID • Symptoms and disease development- Asymptomatic, Onset of symptoms may take months. Discharge, Pain with urination, abdominal paid. • Diagnosis- Cervical swab, Swab or urethra. Urine tests are now avaialable. • Incidence-Fredericton has the highest rate in all of Canada • Transmission-Vaginal, Anal or Oral Sex/Mother to Infant transmission • Treatment-Antibiotics • Prognosis-Curable with no damaging effects if caught early.
TreponemaPallidum • Disease Caused-Syphilis • Characteristics of Organisms- Bacteria Infection, Helical Coil, Posses Flagella, Reproduces by asexual transverse fission • Related Disease-Dementia, Paralysis, Numbness, Blindness, Cardiovascular disease • Symptoms and disease development- • Diagnosis-Diagnosis is made by dark-field microscopy of genital ulcers in primary syphilis and by serology in all stages (blood test) • Incidence-3.5/100,000 (highest in BC due to sex trade workers) • Transmission-Direct contact with Syphilis sore, occurs during vaginal, anal or oral sex • Treatment-Antibiotics (IM injection of penicillin) • Prognosis-Can be cured if caught early, can be re infected
NeisseriaGonorrhoeae • Disease Caused-Gonorrhea • Characteristics of Organisms-Gram-negative cocci , intrecellular and typically appear in pairs • Related Disease-Conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, proctitis, urethritis, prostatis, orchitis • Symptoms and disease development- Women-PID, Cervical infection/irritation, Urinary freq., Discharge, Spotting. Men-pain with urination, discharge • Diagnosis- Urine screening, Sample of discharge, High White Blood Cell Count • Incidence-28.9/100000 • Transmission-Sexual Intercourse/Mother to Baby • Treatment-Antibiotics • Prognosis-95-99% Cure Rate, May lead to sterility