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NURS 2410 Unit 1

NURS 2410 Unit 1

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NURS 2410 Unit 1

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  1. NURS 2410 Unit 1 Nancy Pares, RN, MSN Metro Community College

  2. Objective 1 and 2 and 3 • Apply basic knowledge of healthy maternal newborn care (recall from PN year) • Describe ethical and legal issues of maternal newborn nursing, current legislation and community resources available. • Demonstrate appropriate therapeutic communication and assessment of high risk pregnancy.

  3. Ethical decision making model • Context • Who is involved, what is the setting • What other information is needed • What personal beliefs of the nurse may impact the situation • Clarification of the issues • What are the ethical issues • Who should decide the issue • Identification of alternatives and potential outcomes

  4. Decision making cont • Ethical reasoning • What ethical theories have bearing on the situation • Should some theories be given greater weight in the decision making process • What legal or social constraints are factors • What obligations might be present in the role of the nurse

  5. Decision making model cont • Resolution • What is the best action in this situation • What strategy should be used to carry out this action • Evaluation • What were the outcomes • Should this same action be used in the future for similar dilemmas

  6. Maternal-Newborn Nursing Roles • Professional Nurse • Certified Registered Nurse • Nurse Practitioner • Clinical Nurse Specialist • Certified Nurse Midwife

  7. Factors Contributing to Family Values • Religion and social beliefs • Presence and influence of the extended family • Socialization within the ethnic group • Communication patterns • Beliefs and understanding about health and illness • Permissible physical contact with strangers • education

  8. Legal Issues • Standards of care: • Minimum criteria for competent, proficient, delivery of nursing care • Institutional policies • Ethical implications • Scope of practice • Defined by state Nurse Practice Act • laws

  9. Negligence • There was a duty to provide care. • The duty was breached. • Injury occurred. • The breach of duty caused the injury (proximate cause).

  10. Maternal-Child Issues • Divergence between rights of mother and rights of fetus: • Mother may refuse fetal intervention. • Fetal intervention may be forced on mother. • Fetal research: • Therapeutic vs. non-therapeutic

  11. Maternal-Child Issues • Intrauterine fetal surgery: • Therapy for anomalies incompatible with life • Health of the mother and fetus is at risk • Surrogate, frozen embryo, • Female circumcision

  12. Maternal-Child Issues • Abortion • Can be performed until point of viability • After viability, if mother’s health in jeopardy • Nursing role • Have right to refuse to assist • Responsible for ensuring a qualified replacement is available

  13. Maternal-Child Issues • Infertility • Human stem cells • Cord blood • Maternal refusal for c/del • Maternal refusal for fetal surgery

  14. Standards of Care • Womens’ health standards by Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) • State Boards • Individual facilities policy

  15. Practicing Safety • A holistic interpersonal approach • Adequate documentation • Communication • Updated and realistic policies and procedures • Appropriate delegation • Question deviations from the standar • Follow chain of command

  16. Benefits ofEvidence-Based Practice • Transforms research findings into clinical practice: • Efficiency improvement • Better outcomes • Quality improvement

  17. Objective 4 and 5 • Identify vulnerable periods during which malformations of various organs may occur and describe the resulting anomalies. • Describe the function and structure of the placenta during intrauterine life. (review PN year)

  18. Cell Division (review A&P) • Mitosis: • Exact copies of original cell • Meiosis: • Production of new organism

  19. Genetic terms • Deletion • Loss of chromosome material • Translocation • Misplacement • Nondisjunction • Chromosomes don’t separate correctly • Karotype • Chromosomal make up of an individual Mosaicism two or more genetically different cell populations in an individual

  20. Figure 11–2 Comparison of mitosis and meiosis.

  21. Mitosis • Interphase • Prophase • Metaphase • Anaphase • Telophase

  22. Meiosis • First division: • Chromosomes replicate, pair, and exchange information. • Chromosome pairs separate, and cell divides. • Second division: • Chromatids separate and move to opposite poles. • Cells divide, forming four daughter cells.

  23. Oogenesis • Ovary gives rise to oogonial cells. • Cells develop into oocytes. • Meiosis begins and stops before birth. • Cell division resumes at puberty. • Development of Graafian follicle.

  24. Spermatogenesis • Production of sperm • First meiotic division: • Primary spermatocyte replicates and divides. • Second meiotic division: • Secondary spermatocytes replicate and divide. • Produce four spermatids.

  25. Figure 11–3 Gametogenesis involves meiosis within the ovary and testis. A, During meiosis, each oogonium produces a single haploid ovum once some cytoplasm moves into the polar bodies. B, Each spermatogonium, in contrast, produces four haploid spermatozoa.

  26. Fertilization • Uniting sperm and ovum form a zygote • Ova are fertile for 12 to 24 hours • Sperm are fertile for 72 hours • Takes place in the ampulla of fallopian tube

  27. Changes in Sperm • Capacitation: • Removal of plasma membrane and glycoprotein coat • Loss of seminal plasma proteins • Acrosomal reaction: • Release of enzymes • Allows entry through corona radiata

  28. Figure 11–4 Sperm penetration of an ovum. A, The sequential steps of oocyte penetration by a sperm are depicted moving from top to bottom. B, Scanning electron micrograph of human sperm surrounding a human oocyte (750ラ). The smaller spherical cells are granulosa cells of the corona radiata. SOURCE: Used with permission from Nilsson, L. (1990). A child is born. New York: Dell Publishing.

  29. After Sperm Entry • Zone pellucida blocks additional sperm from entering • Secondary oocyte completes second meiotic division • Forms nucleus of ovum • Nuclei of ovum and sperm unite • Membranes disappear • Chromosomes pair up

  30. Twins • Fraternal: two ova and two sperm • Identical: single fertilized ovum - Originate at different stages

  31. Pre-embryonic • Cleavage • Blastomeres form morula • Blastocyst: - develops into embryonic disc and amnion • Trophoblast: - develops into chorion

  32. Implantation • Occurs 7 to 10 days after fertilization • Blastocyst burrows into endometrium • Endometrium is now called decidua

  33. Embryonic Development • Primary germ layers: • Ectoderm • Mesoderm • Endoderm

  34. Placenta • Metabolic and nutrient exchange • Maternal portion: • Decidua • Fetal portion: • Chorionic villi • Fetal surface covered by amnion

  35. Placental Development • Chorionic villi form spaces in decidua basalis • Spaces fill with maternal blood. • Chorionic villi differentiate: • Syncytium: outer layer • Cytotrophoblast: inner layer • Anchoring villi form septa

  36. Figure 11–13 Longitudinal section of placental villus. Spaces formed in the maternal decidua are filled withmaternal blood; chorionic villi proliferate into these maternal blood-filled spaces and differentiate into a syncytium layer and a cytotrophoblast layer.

  37. Umbilical Cord • Body stalk fuses with embryonic portion of the placenta • Provides circulatory pathway from chorionic villi to embryo: • One vein • Delivers oxygenated blood to fetus: • Two arteries

  38. Figure 11–14 Vascular arrangement of the placenta. Arrows indicate the direction of blood flow. Maternal blood flows through the uterine arteries to the intervillous spaces of the placenta and returns through the uterine veins to maternal circulation. Fetal blood flows through the umbilical arteries into the villous capillaries of the placenta and returns through the umbilical vein to the fetal circulation.

  39. Placental Functions • Nutrition • Excretion • Fetal respiration • Production of fetal nutrients • Production of hormones

  40. Fetal Development: Week 4 • Beginning development of GI tract • Heart is developing • Somites develop—beginning vertebrae • Heart is beating and circulating blood • Eyes and nose begin to form • Arm and leg buds are present

  41. Fetal Development: Week 6 • Trachea is developed • Liver produces blood cells • Trunk is straighter • Digits develop • Tail begins to recede

  42. Fetal Development: Week 12 • Eyelids are closed • Tooth buds appear • Fetal heart tones can be heard • Genitals are well-differentiated • Urine is produced • Spontaneous movement occurs

  43. Fetal Development: Week 16 • Lanugo begins to develop • Blood vessels are clearly developed • Active movements are present • Fetus makes sucking motions • Swallows amniotic fluid • Produces meconium

  44. Fetal Development: Week 20 • Subcutaneous brown fat appears • Quickening is felt by mother • Nipples appear over mammary glands • Fetal heartbeat is heard by fetoscope

  45. Fetal Development: Week 24 • Eyes are structurally complete • Vernix caseosa covers skin • Alveoli are beginning to form

  46. Fetal Development: Week 28 • Testes begin to descend • Lungs are structurally mature

  47. Fetal Development: Week 32 • Rhythmic breathing movements • Ability to partially control temperature • Bones are fully developed but soft and flexible

  48. Fetal Development: Week 36 • Increase in subcutaneous fat • Lanugo begins to disappear

  49. Fetal Development: Week 38 • Skin appears polished • Lanugo has disappeared except in upper arms and shoulders • Hair is now coarse and approximately 1 inch in length • Fetus is flexed

  50. Factors Influencing Development • Quality of sperm or ovum • Genetic code • Adequacy of intrauterine environment • Teratogens