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Changes: The Red River Settlement between 1860- 1870 SS 10 NAULT Horizons text Pages 155- 162
Lots of changes in the 1860’s… • Many people immigrated to the Northwest • Canada became a dominion (a country that rules itself) • The HBC started to decline • Many Canadians moved West to find available farm land
The Orange Order • Many of the new Canadian settlers were Protestants and members of the Orange Order: • A violently anti- French, anti- Catholic movement • They were prejudiced against the Metis (surprise!) because they were French, Catholic, and of mixed heritage…
The Orange Order Dr. John Schultz • Although they were small in number, the presence of the Protestants increased tensions in the Red River a lot. • One of the first immigrants was Dr. John Schultz, he opened a general store, took over the newspaper “The NorWester” • By the end of the 1860’s he had organized a small group called the Canadian Party which hoped to gain control of the settlement.
Economic problems… • Economic problems in the Red River contributed to rising tensions… • Crop failures • Decrease in bison • Less investment by the HBC
Land ownership issues… • Added to this was the fact that: • The Metis never made legal claim to their territory although they had farmed it for years • According to HBC policy, all HBC employees were entitled to their farmland if they lived on it for 3 years PROBLEM: The Metis believed that if a person cleared the land and farmed it, they had the right to it.
Canada Purchases Rupert’s Land • John A Macdonald and D’Arcy McGee wanted to create a country stretching from sea to sea • The HBC wanted to sell Rupert’s Land because the fur trade was declining and they were finding it difficult to maintain control over such a large territory
The negotiations begin… • The HBC and the Canadian government began negotiations to transfer control of Rupert’s Land • No one bothered to consult the people who lived in the Red River Settlement • They reached an agreement in November 1869- Rupert’s Land joined the North-Western Territory and the entire area was renamed “The North- West Territories” (see pg 157)
The New Canada • After this deal, Canada doubled in size. • The HBC received $1.5 million from the government, and 2.8 million hectares of prairie farmland • Before the deal was finalized, land surveyors arrived in the Red River settlement and started laying out grids for the townships…
Problems brewing… • The land surveyors assumed that the people who lived on the land did NOT own it and had no right to claim it… THAT SAME YEAR, LOUIS RIEL RETURNED TO THE RED RIVER…
Louis Riel • Born in 1844, he was the son of Louis Riel Sr. who was the Metis leader for many years. • He was a literate, well- educated lawyer • He was fluent in both English and French • He was an excellent speaker • He was only 24 years old when he returned to the Red River (Film: Louis Riel: The Red River Rebellion)
The Red River Rebellion • In 1869, the tensions in the red River were very high • Settlers were angry at the HBC and at the land surveyors • Riel formed the Metis National Committee to fight for Metis rights
Tensions rise… • That summer, the Metis confronted the surveyors and told them to go back to Ottawa because they intended to govern themselves • Then, several Metis (under Riel’s command) seized Fort Garry and stole the munitions • THE RED RIVER REBELLION HAD BEGUN!
Goal of the Rebellion • Riel and supporters simply wanted to ensure that the people of Red River would retain their rights and traditions when it came under Canadian government rule. • They did not want to rebel against Canada…
The Provisional Government • Riel set up a Provisional gov’t • They wanted the Red River Settlement to join Canada as it’s own province- Manitoba Riel’s Provisional Government
The Provisional Government Why did Riel want a new province? - He feared that if McDougall took charge of the area, the Metis would be ignored and would lose their rights
Metis List of Rights (see page 159) • What do you think of these rights? • Are they fair?
Civil War? • Riel feared that a civil war would begin because the Canadian Party was armed and ready to attack the Metis • To stop this from happening… • Riel led a party of armed Metis to Schulz’s home (headquarters of Canadian Party) • They took 48 of Schulz’s followers to Fort Garry
Riel and Macdonald • After this, Riel declared that he was ready to negotiate with the Canadian government • Macdonald refused to recognize Riel and would not negotiate with him • THE METIS DID NOT GIVE UP!
Escape from Fort Garry • Schultz escaped Fort Garry and plotted to free the other prisoners • However, the Metis arrested them again shortly after they escaped • One of the prisoners was a member of the Canadian Party named: Thomas Scott
Thomas Scott • Scott was a particularly out spoken and belligerent member of the Canadian Party • He was strongly anti- Metis and was verbally and physically abusive to the guards in jail • He also threatened Louis Riel’s life
Thomas Scott • In response to his behaviour, Riel and his provisional government decided to execute him in March • Although all six members of the firing squad took aim together, they did not kill Scott immediately • The squad director had to shoot him again to kill him
OUTRAGE! • Schultz and the Orange Order made Thomas Scott into a Protestant martyr who had been cruelly murdered by the Metis • Cries for justice and retaliation soon reached the government officials in Ottawa (Looking for bias in Thomas Scott articles)
A Compromise… • In April, Macdonald finally offered a compromise to the Metis: • He did not allow provincial control of public lands BUT • He did give the Metis 200 000 hectares of land to recognize their aboriginal title
Manitoba becomes a province… • On May 2nd, legislation confirmed that Manitoba would be included into Canada
Riel flees into exile • When government troops arrived in the Red River in August, RIEL WAS GONE… He (wisely) had fled to the USA… All of the member of the provisional government were granted Amnesty- except Riel- HE WAS BANISHED FROM CANADA FOR 5 YEARS
Riel in Exile • Riel would spend the next 15 years in exile in the United States… HOWEVER, He would later return to take up a new cause…