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Reconstruction. 1865-1877. Aftershock: Beyond the Civil War. Part 1 Violence & Lincoln’s Assassination Part 2 Freedman’s Bureau & Johnson* Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8 Part 9. Effects of the Civil War. Creation of a single unified country

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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Reconstruction 1865-1877

    2. Aftershock: Beyond the Civil War • Part 1 Violence & Lincoln’s Assassination • Part 2 Freedman’s Bureau & Johnson* • Part 3 • Part 4 • Part 5 • Part 6 • Part 7 • Part 8 • Part 9

    3. Effects of the Civil War • Creation of a single unified country • Abolition of slavery (13th Amendment) • Increased power to federal government – tried to kill the issue of states rights • U.S. now an industrial nation • A stronger sense of nationalism • Western lands increasingly opened to settlement • South was economically and physically devastated, w/ the plantation system crippled...thus Reconstruction(rebuilding the U.S.) - but a deep hatred of the North remained...

    4. Reconstruction • Federal government’s controversial effort to repair the damage to the South and restore southern states to the union • 4 Presidents were involved (1865-1877)

    5. Physical Toll • 2/3 shipping destroyed • 9,000 miles of railroad destroyed Value of southern property plunged 70%

    6. Human Toll • North 364,000 • South 260,000 (1/5 of adult white men) • Civilian deaths also occurred as the Northern troops moved through the South

    7. Southern Hardships

    8. Freed slaves had the freedom to… • Move – freed slaves looked for loved ones and married • Own land – provided some economic independence • Worship – formed own churches, volunteer groups, trade associations, drama clubs • To learn – 1860 – 90% illiterate • Schools opened • 1865-1870 – 30 African American colleges opened

    9. Issues facing Reconstruction • 2 issues to be resolved at the end of the Civil War • Seceded States • Freed Slaves None of these plans (so far) addressed issues facing freed slaves • Black Codes • KKK • Lynching

    10. Questions after the Civil War • 1. How and when should Southern states be allowed to resume their role in the union? • 2. Should the South be punished for actions or be forgiven and recover quickly? • 3. Would races have equal rights? • 4. Should the federal government be stronger? • The Founding Fathers didn’t foresee a Civil War, so there was no indication of which branch should handle the aftermath…

    11. 4 Reconstruction Plans were Developed • 1. Lincoln’s Plan • 2. Wade Davis Bill • 3. Johnson’s Plan • 4. Congressional Plan of 1867

    12. Lincoln’s Plan (10% plan) • He began working on the plan as early as December 1863 • He hoped to achieve unity without thoroughly punishing the South • He felt that the South did not legally secede from the union • Many felt his plan did not go far enough to support the rights, especially for voting, of African Americans

    13. 1.Lincoln’s Plan • Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction • Ten-Percent Plan • Offered forgiveness (PARDON) to all southerners who pledged loyalty to the Union and support for emancipation • With 10% of the population pledging this, the state could then form a government that banned slavery and be readmitted into the Union • Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia • Angered Radical Republicans

    14. Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address March 1865 • “with malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds…to do all which may achieve and cherish a just, and a lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.”

    15. Lincoln’s Plan upset Congress • Re-admitting states to the Union was a power of Congress, not the president • Since secession was against the law, Confederates had never legally left the Union • So Congress responds with… • The Wade Davis Bill • Once a majority of a state’s white, male citizens pledged loyalty to the union, it would be readmitted into the Union • Lincoln Pocket vetoed

    16. 2. Wade-Davis Bill (July, 1864) • So Congress responds with… • The Wade Davis Bill • Once 50% of a state’s white, male citizens pledged loyalty to the union, it would be readmitted into the Union • Lincoln Pocket vetoed • Many members of Congress wanted to view the Southern states as reconquered provinces

    17. Andrew Johnson • Becomes President after Lincoln is assassinated in 1865 • One-time slave-owner • Moved from North Carolina to Tennessee • Was the only southern member of Congress to side with the Union • Hated rich planters; strong supporter of poor whites • DEMOCRAT • In 1865, Congress took an 8 month break and Johnson pursued his plan…

    18. 3. Andrew Johnson’s Plan • Similar to Lincoln’s Plan • Except… • Wanted to break the planters’ power by excluding high-ranking Confederates and wealthy Southern landowners from voting • Pardoned more than 13,000 former Confederates so that “white men alone must manage the South” • All but Texas joined and sent Representatives to Congress, Congress refused to admit them

    19. Freedman’s Bureau • Begun in March 1865 (prior to Lincoln’s assassination) • 1st major federal relief agency in history • 1866 Congress voted to enlarge the Freedmen’s Bureau & forbid Southern states from passing black codes • provided food, clothing, hospitals, legal protection, and education to former slaves • It redistributed • Johnson vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau Act and the Civil Rights Act

    20. What do you see (symbols, people, etc.)? • What words are used? • What can you infer from or about the cartoon?

    21. Republicans in Congress wanted… • Favored tougher rules for restoring the states that had left the Union • Wanted to truly give freed slaves freedom • Overrode Johnson’s veto of the Freedman’s Bureau and drafted the 14th Amendment • 14th Amendment grants citizenship to “all person’s born or naturalized in the United States” • Reconstruction plan: • Ratify the 14th and 15th Amendments • Write new state constitution that guaranteed freedmen the right to vote • Form new governments to be elected by all male citizens including African Americans

    22. 4. Congress Reconstruction • Congress drafted the Reconstruction Plan of 1867 • Denied state governments formed under the Lincoln and Johnson plans • Divided former Confederate states into 5 military districts • This would force southern states to grant African-Americans the right to vote and pass the 14th amendment to reenter the union. • Johnson vetoed • Congress overrode Johnson’s Presidential Veto

    23. Congress upset with Johnson, look for grounds to impeach him. • Find it after he violates the Tenure of Office Act in 1868 by removing Secretary of War Edwin Stanton from office • Senate did not vote to convict so he remains in office

    24. Presidential Election of 1868 • Ulysses S. Grant wins the election by 306,000 votes • Over 500,000 Southern African Americans had voted in which 9/10 voted for Grant • Radical Republicans introduce the 15th Amendment after the election • 15th Amendment no person can be kept from voting based on “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”

    25. Republicans in the Postwar South • Scalawags: white Southerners who joined the Republican Party • Mainly small farmers wanting to improve their economic position • Carpetbaggers: Northerners who moved to the South after the war • African Americans • Discontinuity in Southern Republicans • Scalawags and white Southerners resisted equal rights for African Americans

    26. African Americans during Reconstruction • 95% of former slaves were illiterate • First public schools established in the South by the new African American churches • Voted and held office in local, state, and federal governments • Many forced into sharecropping because they were denied land • Sharecropping: landowners divided their land and assigned each head of household a few acres, along with seeds and tools. • Sharecroppers kept a small share of their crops and gave the rest to the landowners

    27. Reconstruction Collapses • Rise of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). • Goal was to destroy the Republican Party, Reconstruction governments, aid the planter class, and keep Af. Am.’s from engaging in politics • Killed approximately 20,000 men, women & children • Boycotted Af. Am.s who voted Republican • Congress passed a series of Enforcement Acts in 1870 and 1871 to try and block the KKK • Supervision of elections in Southern states • Gave President power to use fed. Troops where KKK was active • May 1872 Congress passed the Amnesty Act allowing 150,000 former Confederates the right to vote and hold government offices • Also allowed the Freedman’s Bureau to expire

    28. What do you see (symbols, people, etc.)? • What words are used? • What can you infer from or about the cartoon?

    29. Reconstruction Collapses (Cont.) • Panic of 1873 after a series of banks fail leads to a 5 year depression • Supreme Court undoes some of the social and political changes Radicals made • Republicans retreat from Reconstruction policies • Southern Democrats regain control of the South • Election of 1876 • Samuel J. Tilden (D) vs. Rutherford B. Hayes (R) • Tilden wins popular vote but misses by 1 electoral vote • S. Democrats agree to accept Hayes if federal troops are withdrawn from the South