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Hexavalent Chromium “New OSHA Standard”. Informational Web Cast. Presented by MSA. John Hierbaum Product Line Manager Air Purifying Respirators & Meghan Swanson Staff Chemist. WELCOME. Thank You for joining us today. CAUTION!. This presentation is an overview of the new standard

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presented by msa

Presented by MSA

John Hierbaum

Product Line Manager

Air Purifying Respirators


Meghan Swanson

Staff Chemist



Thank You for joining us today

  • This presentation is an overview of the new standard
  • This presentation does not represent the complete standard as published by OSHA
  • It is important that all participants review the entire standard before implementing a program within the workplace
  • Timetable for the new Hexavalent Chromium Standard
  • Workers most notably affected
  • What is Hexavalent Chromium?
    • What are its health hazards?
  • Elements of the New Standard
  • Steps to comply with the new standard
  • Q & A
new osha standard hexavalent chromium
New OSHA StandardHexavalent Chromium
  • Covers
    • General Industry - 1910.1026
    • Shipyards - 1915.1026
    • Construction - 1926.1126
  • Most requirements are generally the same for all industries
exceptions to the new standard
Exceptions to the New Standard
  • Does not impact application of some pesticides (EPA regulated)
  • Does not impact exposures to portland cement
  • Does not impact situations in which the employer has objective data demonstrating that a material containing chromium or specific operation or activity cannot release Cr (VI) in concentrations at or above 0.5 µg/m3 as an 8 hour TWA
significant dates to remember
Significant Dates to Remember
  • February 28, 2006 - OSHA published the new standard
  • May 30, 2006 – Effective date
  • Enforced 180 days from the effective date with exceptions
    • Nov 27, 2006 – 20 or more employees
    • May 31, 2007 – less than 20 employees
    • May 31, 2010 - engineering control requirements
what activities are the sources of chromium vi
What Activities are the Sources of Chromium (VI)?
  • Welding and cutting of stainless steel and other chromium containing metals
  • Heavy Painting and coating
  • Electroplating
  • Handling of chrome based pigments
how many workers are exposed
How Many Workers are Exposed?
  • About 558,000 workers are exposed to Cr(VI)
  • Several workers will be required to use respiratory protection
  • Welders represent the highest single worker group exposed
cr vi
  • Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds exist in several forms, known as chromates
    • Typically particulates
    • Yellow, orange, or red in color
  • Trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) is the most stable state; naturally occuring
  • Cr(VI) is less chemically stable; most compounds are man made
chromates have varying solubilities
Chromates have Varying Solubilities
  • Highly soluble in water:
    • Sodium dichromate
    • Chromic acid
  • Slightly soluble in water:
    • Calcium chromate
    • Strontium chromate
    • Zinc chromate
  • Insoluble in water:
    • Lead chromate
    • Barium chromate
exposure routes
Exposure Routes
  • Inhalation
    • Particulates, such as:
    • Paint spray
    • Welding fumes
    • Chromate dust
  • Skin exposure
health effects
Health Effects
  • Respiratory
    • Lung cancer
    • Damage to nasal membranes
    • Asthma
  • Dermal
    • Skin damage
  • Internal organs
    • Kidney
    • Liver
carcinogenic effects lung cancer
Carcinogenic Effects: Lung Cancer
  • Cells uptake Cr(VI)
    • Faster for soluble forms of Cr(VI)
    • Insoluble chromates concentrate
    • Particles < 10 µm contact target cells
  • Cells react with Cr(VI) to form Cr(III) and toxic byproducts, Reactive Oxygen Species
  • DNA is damaged
  • Cell replication disturbed
other respiratory effects
Other Respiratory Effects
  • Nasal Irritation
  • Nasal Ulcerations
  • Nasal Septum Perforations
  • Asthma
    • Cr(VI) is an airway sensitizer
    • Exposure prompts immune response
  • Bronchitis
additional health effects
Additional Health Effects
  • Dermal
    • Contact dermititis
    • Skin ulcers
  • Internal
    • Gastrointestinal ulcers
    • Kidney disease
    • Liver damage
summary of health issues
Summary of Health Issues
  • Major health effects
    • Lung cancer
    • Damage to nasal passages
    • Skin rashes and ulcers
  • A high % of workers exposed can get lung cancer
  • This standard is intended to reduce these health risks
major elements of the new standard
Major Elements of the New Standard
  • Permissible Exposure Level
  • Exposure Determination
  • Engineering Controls
  • Personal Protection
  • Medical Surveillance
  • Worker Education and communication
permissible exposure
Permissible Exposure
  • PEL
    • Reduced from 52 micrograms of Cr(VI) per cubic meter of air as an eight-hour time weighted average (TWA) to 5 µg/m3
      • This cannot be achieved by rotation of employees
    • Note: OSHA originally wanted to reduce the PEL to 1 µg/m3
      • Draft standard
  • Action Level
    • 2.5 micrograms per cubic meter of air
exposure determination
Exposure Determination
  • Employer has 2 choices
    • Scheduled monitoring
    • Performance oriented
  • Must determine the 8-hour TWA exposure for each employee
scheduled monitoring
Scheduled Monitoring
  • Initial monitoring
    • Sufficient # of samples
    • Full-shift exposure
    • All job classifications
  • Follow-up monitoring
    • None if below action level
    • 6 months if above action level
    • 3 months if above PEL
monitoring guidelines
Monitoring Guidelines
  • If employee exposure exceeds PEL
    • Employer must notify employee within 15 days
    • Post information
    • Written notification
  • Accuracy of measuring equipment
      • +/- 25%
  • Confidence level of 95%
  • Employees can observe monitoring
    • Employer to provide personal protection
performance oriented option
Performance Oriented Option
  • Air monitoring data
  • Historical monitoring data
  • Objective data
  • If employee exposure exceeds PEL
    • Employer must notify employee within 15 days
    • Post information
    • Written notification
engineering controls
Engineering Controls
  • Engineering controls mandatory with exceptions
  • Effective date
    • May 31, 2010
  • Shall reduce the exposure below the PEL
  • If not feasible, respiratory protection must be used
exceptions to eng controls
Exceptions to Eng. Controls
  • #1 - Aerospace
    • Painting large aircraft
    • Must reduce exposure below 25 micrograms
      • Unless not feasible
      • Supplement with proper respiratory protection
  • #2 - Employee is not exposed above PEL for 30 or more days per year
  • Respiratory Protection
    • To comply, one can use a traditional half-mask NIOSH approved respirator with N-95 filters. For maximum protection however, MSA recommends a P-100 filter with a full facepiece.
    • Respiratory program must be in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134
      • A copy of this is available on the MSA web site
other ppe
Other PPE
  • Work clothing
    • Provided by employer where necessary
    • No cost to employee
    • Employer must ensure it is used
    • Must be cleaned properly, taking precautions to prevent contamination of other employees
medical surveillance
Medical Surveillance
  • Employer to offer free of charge
  • All employees who may be exposed above the action level for 30 or more days per year
  • Employees showing signs of exposure
  • Employees exposed in an emergency
medical surveillance frequency
Medical Surveillance Frequency
  • Within 30 days of initial assignment, unless employee had Cr(VI) exam within last 12 months
  • Annually
  • Within 30 days of PLHCP’s recommendation for further exam
  • If employee shows signs or symptoms
  • Within 30 days of emergency exposure
  • At termination, unless last exam was within 6 months
  • Exam must include medical & work history, history of respiratory problems, other specific problems (listed in rule)
medical surveillance32
Medical Surveillance
  • Employer must provide to PLHCP: copy of this standard, a description of employees duties, employees exposure level to CrVI, description of PPE and how long used by employee, information on previous employee medical exams
  • PLHCP’s written medical opinion: furnished within 30 days of exam, any detected medical condition which affects work, employee limitations on work and PPE usage, statement that the PLHCP has explained results to employee
  • Employer must provide exam info in writing to employee within 2 weeks of exam
employee education and communication
Employee Education and Communication
  • Employer must provide a copy of the standard to the employee
  • Employer must insure employee can demonstrate knowledge of:
    • The contents of this rule
    • The purpose and description of medical surveillance
  • Employer must keep records of
    • Air monitoring data
    • Historical monitoring data
    • Objective data
    • Medical surveillance
methods of compliance
Methods of Compliance
  • Respiratory Protection
    • Half-Mask
    • Full Facepiece
    • PAPR
    • Air-Line Respirator
  • Exposure determination
    • Sampling Equipment
advantage 200 ls respirators
Advantage 200 LS Respirators
  • Any NIOSH approved filter
  • P-100 (as shown) is best
  • Can use up to 10X the PEL
advantage 3000 respirator
Advantage 3000 Respirator
  • Full-Face Respirator
  • Any NIOSH approved filter
  • Can use up to 50X the PEL
powered respirator papr
Powered Respirator (PAPR)
  • Used with full-face respirator
  • High Efficiency P-100 filter
  • Can use up to 50X the PEL
air line respirators
Air Line Respirators
  • Constant- Flow
  • Positive Pressure
  • No filter required
  • Can be used up to 2000X the PEL
    • You cannot exceed the maximum use concentration.
  • To test exposure use an MSA Escort® Elf Sampling Pump
  • The procedure for hexavalent chromium calls for particle collection using a 37-mm, 5-µm pore size PVC filter.


Thanks for attending!