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Hexavalent Chromium Cr (VI). National Emphasis Program. New OSHA Instruction . National Emphasis Program on Hexavalent Chromium

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Hexavalent Chromium Cr (VI)

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hexavalent chromium cr vi

Hexavalent Chromium Cr (VI)

National Emphasis Program

new osha instruction
New OSHA Instruction

National Emphasis Program on

Hexavalent Chromium

Purpose: “To identify and reduce or eliminate the health hazards associated with occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium and other toxic substances in a select group of industries.”

key elements
Key Elements
  • Information for selecting sites for inspection
  • Procedures for conducting inspections with emphasis on IH evaluations
  • Measures to ensure safety and health of OSHA compliance staff
  • Program evaluation procedures
  • Plans for outreach to train OSHA compliance staff and general public on hazards addressed by this NEP and effective abatement methods
general information
General Information
  • Hexavalent chromium compounds all contain the chromium (+6) ion (CAS 18540-29-9)
  • Also written as Chromium (VI) or Cr(VI)
  • Occupational Hazards:
    • Increased risk of lung cancer from inhalation exposures
    • Irritation and sensitization to lungs, throat, nose, eyes, and skin
what is chromium vi
What is Chromium (VI)?
  • Toxic form of chromium metal that is generally man-made
  • Exists as many types of CrVI compounds that vary in their solubility and use
  • Used in many industrial applications primarily for its anti-corrosive properties
what is chromium vi6
What is Chromium (VI)?
  • Chromium with valence of positive six, in any form or chemical compound in which it occurs
  • CR(VI) In all states of matter, any solution or other mixture, even if encapsulated by other substances
  • Term also includes industrial process that creates Cr(VI) fumes
how is cr vi formed
How is Cr (VI) Formed?
  • Created during “hot” work processes such as welding on stainless steel or the melting chromium metal
  • Chromium metal is ionized into the fume high temperatures and chemical reactions temporarily oxidizes the chromium ion into a hexavalent (+6) state
hexavalent chromium compounds in industrial use
Hexavalent chromium compounds in industrial use
  • Chromate pigments in dyes, paints, inks, and plastics
  • Chromates added as anticorrosive agents to paints, primers, and other surface coatings
  • Chromic acid electroplated onto metal parts to provide a decorative or protective coating
major industries
Major Industries
  • Chromium dye and catalyst production
  • Glass manufacturing
  • Plastic colorant production
  • Construction
    • Traffic painting
    • Refractory brick restoration
    • Paint removal from bridges
  • Electroplating
  • Welding on stainless steel or Cr(VI) painted surfaces
  • Painting
    • Aerospace
    • Auto body repair
  • Chromate pigment and chemical production
other toxic substances
Other Toxic Substances
  • Number of toxic substances found to be present in same industrial applications where hexavalent chromium is or could be found:
  • Copper Fume
  • Lead
  • Iron Oxide
  • Manganese
  • Nickel
  • Silver
  • Tin
  • Zinc Oxide
  • Antimony
  • Arsenic
  • Cadmium
  • Cobalt
  • Calcium Oxide
program procedures
Program Procedures
  • Industry Selection
  • Inspection Scheduling
  • Complaints and Referrals
  • Voluntary Compliance Programs
  • Strategic Partnerships
  • Expanding Scope of Inspection
  • Inspection Procedures
  • Outreach
  • Follow-Up and Monitoring
  • Coordination
  • Federal Agencies
  • NEP Evaluation
  • IMIS Coding Instructions
industry selection
Industry Selection
  • Appendix A
    • List of SIC Codes for industries determined likely to have employees exposed to Cr (VI) and other toxic substances
    • Not a comprehensive list, but intended as primary source
  • Industries not in Appendix A
    • Known by Area Office, based on local knowledge may be added
    • AO must document the addition and maintain such documentation for the duration of NEP
industry selection13
Industry Selection
  • Master List Generation
    • Using D&B employer listing, the Office of Statistical Analysis (OAS) will prepare master list for each AO
  • Targeting Sources
    • AOs may consider local sources including local manufacturing/services directories, telephone listings, local knowledge, and previous inspection history
    • Establishments with fewer than 10 employees shall also be included
industry selection14
Industry Selection
  • Deletions
    • AOs shall delete from inspection target list any facilities:
      • Not likely to have Cr (VI) hazards
      • Known to be out of business
      • Which have had health inspections in preceding two years addressing Cr (VI) and other toxic substance hazards, provided
        • no citations were issued or;
        • that citation(s) were issued, but follow up inspection documented tangible appropriate and effective efforts to abate the serious hazards cited; or OSHA received and confirmed that violations have been abated.
industry selection15
Industry Selection
  • Cycle Generation
    • Sequential Number will be assigned
    • After randomizing list, AO will create inspection cycles of five (5) or more establishments
    • Subsequent cycles will be created until expiration of NEP or until all establishments on list have been assigned to a cycle
    • When AO becomes aware of previously known establishment in one of targeting SICs, that establishment shall be added to master inspection targeting list for inclusion in selection process for next inspection cycle
inspection scheduling
Inspection Scheduling
  • May be scheduled in any order to make efficient use of resources
  • Cycle must be completed before another cycle is started (except that establishment may be carried over in accordance with OSHA Instruction CPL 02-00-025.)
  • Beginning with current fiscal year
  • Will continue until further notice or until all on list have been inspected
  • Some establishments selected for inspection under this NEP may also be selected for inspection under current Site-Specific Targeting (SST) Plan or other NEPs and/or LEPs
inspection scheduling17
Inspection Scheduling
  • Some targeted industries for this NEP overlap with other NEPs including those currently targeting combustible dust, lead, amputations and silica
  • When possible, NEP inspection should be conducted concurrently with SST or other programmed inspections
complaints and referrals
Complaints and Referrals
  • General Industry
    • Must be handled in accordance with procedures outlined in CPL 02-00-140- Complaint Policies and Procedures
    • Considered high-gravity, serious and handled by inspection
  • Construction
    • Document status/condition of work operation, noting any serious hazard(s). (Documentation of events leading up to observation must be maintained in file.)
    • Note location of worksite and name/address of employer(s) performing operation
    • Handle in accordance with procedures in CPL 02-00-140, Complaint Policies and Procedures and OSHA FOM, CPL 02-00-148
    • When safety CSHO encounters site where Cr(VI) exposures may exist during course of any construction inspection, appropriate health referrals will be made
voluntary compliance programs
Voluntary Compliance Programs
  • Employers participating may be exempt from programmed inspections
  • If establishment participates in VPP or SHARP Follow procedures outlined in OSHA FOM (CPL 02-00-148), Chapter 2
strategic partnerships
Strategic Partnerships
  • Shall be conducted in accordance with terms outlined in partnership agreement
  • May be exempt from programmed inspection for six (6) months,


  • May qualify for focused (or limited scope) inspection
expanding scope of inspection
Expanding Scope of Inspection
  • May expand the scope of inspection under this NEP if other hazards or violation conditions are observed and/or brought to their attention
  • CSHO shall follow guidelines in FOM when expanding scope of inspection
inspection procedures
Inspection Procedures




Search OSHA/IMIS database for employer citation & fatality/ accident history prior to assignment of inspection

CSHO determines if any other current NEP such as amputations, combustible dust, lead or silica, etc.

Inspection scheduled for identified establishment


SIC Code NOT listed in Appendix A Exit facility without conducting inspection

At opening conference, CSHO verify w/ employer correct SIC code for establishment

SIC Code NOT listed in Appendix A, but determined employees using materials containing Cr(VI) or other toxic substance  Proceed with programmed inspection

  • CSHO to consider & evaluate employee exposures & compliance in regard to:
  • Regular Operations
  • Setup & preparation for regular operations
  • Clearing process upsets
  • Making Adjustments during operations
  • Cleaning of process area
  • Scheduled & unscheduled maintenance
  • Implementation of engineering controls
  • Use of PPE
  • Medical Surveillance programs
  • Employee training & education



CSHO will verify w/ employer any process that may produce Cr(VI) or other toxic substance exposures are conducted at facility

Proceed with inspection with particular attention to employee exposure to Cr(VI) or other toxic substances

inspection procedure
Inspection Procedure



If exposure monitoring is not conducted A thorough explanation for not monitoring is to be included in inspection file

IH shall take properly calibrated instruments and sampling media with them on FIRST day of inspection

When present, MUST include personal exposure monitoring in ALL cases


If determined that operations with exposure to Cr(VI) or other toxic substances are NOT present, but establishment listed in another current NEP, CSHO shall proceed with comprehensive inspection

If safety hazards are noted that cannot be appropriately dealt with by IH CSHO, an appropriate safety referral will be made


ALL potential hazards observed in course of any inspection conducted under this NEP shall be appropriately addressed

protection of csho s
Protection of CSHO’s
  • Shall conduct hazard determination to establish presence of Cr (VI) (or other toxic substances) PRIOR to initiating the walk around
  • Rely on information such as previous inspection history, material safety data sheets, professional judgment, and/or previous exposure monitoring surveys
  • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to be used during inspection such as: Respirators, gloves and/or protective clothing (made available to CSHO’s prior to inspection) and WILL be worn based on CSHO’s determination of their expected exposure to hazard
  • Additional information can be found in Appendix B
  • Any equipment utilized during course of any inspection initiated under this NEP should be appropriately decontaminated
  • Letters
    • Employers
    • Professional Associations
    • Local Safety Councils
    • Apprenticeship Programs
    • Local Hospitals and Occupational Health Clinics
    • Industry Employer Organizations
  • Speeches
  • Training Sessions
  • News Releases
  • Regional/Area Office Alliances
  • Directorate of Science, Technology and Medicine has prepared materials
  • Variety of online resources:
    • www.osha.gov
    • Technical link page specific to hexavalent chromium under the alphabetical “Site Index”
follow up and monitoring
Follow-Up and Monitoring
  • Follow up inspections conducted for all cases with documented
    • Exposures above any permissible exposure level (PEL)
    • Employer has failed to take appropriate action
  • Follow up inspection conducted within three months after the final abatement date for cited violations
follow up and montoring
Follow-Up and Montoring
  • CSHO shall verify employer’s abatement documentation/verification by carefully evaluating any and all
    • Air monitoring results
    • Implemented engineering controls
    • Personal Protective Equipment requirements
    • Housekeeping and employee information
    • Training
  • In accordance with FOM, Chapter IX.A.
follow up and monitoring29
Follow-Up and Monitoring
  • Personal air sampling- Conducted by OSHA staff in ALL situations, unless job task or job site is no longer active
  • Use of employer generated monitoring data is NOT permitted for purpose of abatement verification under this NEP.
follow up and monitoring30
Follow-Up and Monitoring
  • Abatement documentation/verification will be submitted to/collected by the Area Office
  • Abatement information MUST be included in case file in a timely manner
  • When possible, case file to be closed in the fiscal year in which intervention was conducted to allow the data to be applied to Agency’s Strategic Goal accomplishments
  • Cases where implementation of engineering controls extend beyond fiscal year, case file will be closed as soon as possible
  • National Office
    • Coordinated by the Office of Health Enforcement (OHE), Directorate of Enforcement Programs (DEP)
  • Field Office
    • Each Regional Administrator is required to name a coordinator for this NEP
federal agencies
Federal Agencies
  • Executive Order 12196, Section 1-201, and 29 CFR 1960.16 requires Federal Agencies to follow the enforcement policy and procedures contained in this Directive
nep evaluation
NEP Evaluation
  • Evaluated using data collected from case files and follow-up site visit reports submitted by each Area Office to the OHE
  • Interim, current method used by Office of Statistics will continue to apply
  • Once Office of Statistics has received reasonable number of case files and follow-up site visit reports, data will be evaluated to determine impact of OSHA inspections on reduction of hexavalent chromium exposures at each workplace
imis coding instructions
IMIS Coding Instructions
  • All enforcement activities (inspections, complaints, and referrals) and compliance assistance (OSHA 55) conducted under this NEP must be coded with the NEP code:


Entered in appropriate NEP field/item number on respective form

sampling information
Sampling Information
  • Two types of filters available for Air Sampling:
    • PVC Filters
    • Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) Coated Quartz Fiber Filter
  • PVC filters can be used for all hexavalent chromium air sampling but must be analyzed within six (6) days. *Overnight mail recommended*
  • NaOH quartz filters can only be used for plating operations where a mineral acid chemical interference could occur. *These do not need to be sent overnight*
additional sampling information
Additional Sampling Information
  • Wipe samples for must be taken on PVC or Quartz Fiber Filters
  • DO NOT USE Mixed Cellulose Ester (MCE), Ghost Wipes, Smear Tabs or Whatman Filters (these will react with any Cr(VI) changing it to Trivalent Chrome)
  • You can order filters from lab using LISA or order by phone
appendix a list of selected industries
Appendix A- List of Selected Industries

(A)- SIC targeted by the Amputation NEP

(L)- SIC targeted by the Lead NEP

appendix b field hazard bulletin
Appendix B-Field Hazard Bulletin

See OSHA Instruction

(NEP- Hexavalent

Chromium) for this


appendix c list of other toxic substances often found in conjunction with hexavalent chromium
Appendix C-List of Other Toxic Substances Often Found in Conjunction with Hexavalent Chromium
  • Antimony
  • Arsenic
  • Cadmium
  • Calcium Oxide
  • Cobalt
  • Copper Fume
  • Lead
  • Iron Oxide
  • Manganese
  • Nickel
  • Silver
  • Tin
  • Zinc Oxide