Organic Chemistry. Chapter 22. Organic Chemistry. All organic compounds contain carbon atoms, but not all carbon-containing compounds are classified as organic. examples: Na 2 CO 3 , CO, and CO 2 are considered inorganic.
Organic Chemistry Chapter 22
Organic Chemistry • All organic compounds contain carbon atoms, but not all carbon-containing compounds are classified as organic. • examples: Na2CO3, CO, and CO2 are considered inorganic. • Organic compoundscan be defined as covalently bonded compounds containing carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides
Diversity Due to Carbon • The diversity of organic compounds results from the uniqueness of carbon’s structure and bonding. • Carbon atoms are unique in their ability to form long chains and rings of covalently bonded atoms.
Alkanes • All single covalent bonds • saturated hydrocarbons because they contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms that can bond with the number of carbon atoms in the molecule • The smallest alkanes are gases, the largest are solids. The longer the hydrocarbon chain, the higher the boiling point. • General Formula = CnH2n+2 C2H6 CH4 C3H8 ethane methane propane
Cycloalkanes • Alkanes whose carbon atoms are joined in rings
Alkenes • Have at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond • Are known as unsaturated hydrocarbons because they contain the at least one double bond preventing the carbons to be completely saturated with hydrogen atoms. • General Formula = CnH2n C2H4 C3H6 ethene propene
Alkynes • Have at least one carbon-to-carbon triple bond • unsaturated hydrocarbons because they contain the at least one triple bond preventing the carbons to be completely saturated with hydrogen atoms. • General Formula = CnH2n-2 C2H2 C3H4 ethyne propyne
Structural isomers: molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structures STRUCTURAL ISOMERS EXAMPLE: Both molecules below have the formula of C4H10
H H H H H C C C C C H H H CH3 H H H H H H C C C H H H CH3 H H H H CH3 C C C C H H H H H H How many structural isomers does pentane, C5H12, have?
Functional Groups • Functional groups are specific chemical formulas that are bonded to a hydrocarbon. • Each group exhibits specific chemical characteristics. • The hydrocarbon is indicated by the letter “R”.
Alcohols • Molecule with an –OH group attached to a carbon atom • General formula is R-OH
Common products that contain alcohols Rubbing Alcohol Cough Medicine Hair Gel
ETHER • Contains 1 oxygen atom • One oxygen atom is bonded to two carbon chains, one on each end • Name ends in “ether” • General formula: Example: Dimethyl Ether
Common products that contain ethers Some Cosmetics Starter Fluid Anise Seed used for bread and cookies
CARBOXYLIC ACID • Contains 2 oxygen atoms • One oxygen atom is double bonded to a carbon atom and a second oxygen is single bonded to the same carbon atom • Name ends in “icacid” • General formula: Example: Ethanoic acid
Carboxylic Acids • General Formula = R-COOH
Common products that contain carboxylic acids Coconut Some Fruits Vinegar
ESTER • Contains 2 oxygen atoms • One oxygen atom is double bonded to a carbon atom and a second oxygen is single bonded to the same carbon atom • Name ends in “oate” • General formula: Example: Methyl ethanoate
Common products that contain esters Bananas Oranges Flowers