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Tissue Engineering. Mouse Ears . http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PEc7QXAjsL4&feature=related. 1997 MIT. Engineering Tissue . http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WvSxZ4JKQAY&feature=related.  Corneal Tissue Engineering  Blood vessel tissue engineering  Liver tissue engineering

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slide2

Mouse Ears

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PEc7QXAjsL4&feature=related

1997 MIT

slide3

Engineering Tissue

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WvSxZ4JKQAY&feature=related

slide4

 Corneal Tissue Engineering

 Blood vessel tissue engineering

 Liver tissue engineering

 Cartilage tissue engineering

 Bone tissue engineering

slide5

Key Factors involving tissue engineering

Scaffold( ceramics

collagen, polymers)

Cell Culture( stem cell, osteoblast, chondrocyte, hepatocyte

Tissue/Organ regeneration

Signaling Molecules (Growth Factors, proteins

slide6

Cell culture

Interactive traids of responsive cells

Scaffolds

Supportive matrix

Growth factors

Bioactive molecules promoting differentiation and regeneration

slide7

Application of tissue engineering

  •  Transplantation
  • Cellular and tissue
  • bases product
  • Alternative to animal
  • test

3D culture

slide8

1st generation

2nd generation

3rd generation

Principle approach

Performed tissue flaps 3D construct

In vivo regeneration and guided tissue repair

Autologous cell transplant

Important component

Delivery substances and scaffold( 體內重新建構)

Growth factors and biomaterials(體內再生)

Periosteal flaps( 修補組織 骨骼)

Developing procedures used in cartilage tissue engineering

slide11

Cartilage Tissue Engineering

  • Autologous chondrocyte
  • 1. Isolation of tissue sample from patients
  • 2. Tissue regeneration by precursor cells
  • or embryonic stem cells
  •  articular cartilage repair, nasal septal
  • cartilage scaffolds for cartilage for
  • tissue repair
slide12

ECM ( Extra cellular Matrix)

ECM interaction directly influence cell signaling via cell adhesion molecules such as integrin and cadhedrin, fibronectin, collagen, laminin….

slide13

Extracellular Matrix in relation to epithelium endothelium and

connective tissue

Epithelial cell

Basement

membrane

Endothelial lining the

capillary

Connective tissue with

interatitial matrix

Fibroblast

slide14

Steering Stem Cell Differentiation

Differentiation of stem cells induced by binding to extracellular matrix components (e.g. proteins such as fibronectin, collagen and laminin)components

http://inano.au.dk/organization/research-groups/nanobiointerfaces/research/steering-stem-cell-differentiation/

slide15

II. Scaffold for tissue construction

1. Act as shape and guidance template for

in vitro and in vivo tissue development

2. Permit 3D immobilization and maintain

differentiation

materials: hyaluronic acid, collagen, alginate,

chutosan, synthetic biodegradable poly( -

hydroxy ester) polyacetic acid,( PLIA), polyglycolic

acid( PGA), PLGA……

slide16

Embedding medium

( hydrogel)

Polymer fiber

Chondrocyte or Mesenchyma stem cell

slide17

Biosynthetic scaffolds

Collagen scafold

slide18

Cells

In vivo

transplant

Tissue scafold

+

and

Growth factors

slide19

Engineering Organs from Scratch

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0QJh0yc2mAI&feature=related

slide20

Tissue in cardiovascular structure

  • Advantages:
  • Avoid repeat operation
  • No rejection by the patients immune system
  • Cells behave like endothelial cells may have low thrombus formation and low infection
  • i.e. valves, blood vessels, vascular patches
slide21

Basic steps in tissue engineering of a cardiac valve

Bone marrow

cells harvest

Valve

scaffold

Cell- scaffold

construct

slide23

Approaches to create a vascular graft

Cross linking

Exogenous chemicals

Mechanical stimulations

Endothelial lining

Cells + tubular scaffold

Smooth muscle cells progenitor cells collagen gel/elastin fibrin

Extra cellular matrix

Biodegradable polymers

Autulogous EC Circulating EPC Allogenic EC Embryonic stem cell

Non-thromgenicity Immune response Remodeling

In vivo implantation

American Journal of Transplantation 2004; 4 (Suppl. 6): 36–42

slide26

How to Build a Beating Heart

http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/series/explorer/4828/Photos/3671755be79cd210VgnVCM1000000100007fRCRD#tab-Videos/09347_00

http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/series/explorer/4828/Photos/3671755be79cd210VgnVCM1000000100007fRCRD#tab-Videos/10008_00

http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/series/explorer/4828/Photos/3671755be79cd210VgnVCM1000000100007fRCRD#tab-Videos/09346_00

slide27

Artificial skin

  • skin substitute
  •  Adhere to the substrate,
  •  Durable and sufficiently elastic
  • Tolerate some deformation
  • Allow evaporative water loss
  •  Provide a microbial barrier
  • Promote homeostasis
  • Easy to use
  • Readily available immediately after injury, and elicit a
  • Regeneration-like response from the wound bed

without evoking an inflammatory, foreign-body, or non-

self immunologic reaction.

slide32

MSC (mesenchyma stem cells)

 Proliferate in cultures

 Differentiate into multiple mesenchyma lineage

ie. correction of genetic disorder of , i.e bone cartilage

slide33

Preparation of 3-D mesenchyma cells

Cell seeding on cotton gauze

framed collagen substratum

Formation of multilayer

mesenchyma cells

Physical detachment

3D culture

slide34

Preparation of 3-D mesenchyma cells

Seeding of

mesenchyma cells

confluent

mesenchyma cells

Seeding of

epithelial cells

Coculture of epithelial

and mesenchyma cells

Detachment of epithelial

cells –attached

mesenchyma cell sheet

Formation of

hetero-spheroid

slide35

Osteoblast

  •  Arise from mesenchyma cells( MSC)
  • MSC may be differentiate into osteoblast in vitro
  • Cultured osteoblast may form extracellular

matrix in culture

slide36

Bone marrow derived osteoblast

Cultured bone

Transplantation of cultured bone cells

T. Uemura et al. / Biomaterials 24 (2003) 2277–2286

slide37

Bone marrow derived osteoblast

Cultured bone

Transplantation of cultured bone cells

T. Uemura et al. / Biomaterials 24 (2003) 2277–2286

slide40

Elastomeric PGS Scaffolds in Arterial Tissue Engineering

http://www.jove.com/details.php?id=2691

Tissue Engineering -- Building Body Parts

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ofiLcTs7_Ys&feature=related