Human. Evolution. What were our ancestors like?. Where did we evolve? Why big brains? Relationships between populations?. Who are the closest living relatives of humans? How do we know?. Chimp. Gorilla. Orang. Bonobo. Where are they now?. Orangs. Gorillas. Chimps. Bonobos.
What were our ancestors like?
Where did we evolve? Why big brains?
Relationships between populations?
mtDNA from Neanderthal
Europe, Asia, Australia
Asian / Australian
Did we have one female ancestor in the last 200,000 years?
Ka / Ks
replacements 19 6
silent 7 10
Evans et al 2004
Mekel-Bobrov et al 2005.
Ka / Ks
Wang and Su 2004.
Haplotype: 29 kb
Evans et al 2005
Evans et al 2006
Currat, M. et al. 2006. Comment on “Ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM” and “Microcephalin, a gene regulating brain size”. Science 313:172a.
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Evans, P. D. et al. 2005. Microcephalin, a gene regulating brain size, continues to evolve adaptively in humans. Science 309:1717-1720.
Evans, P. D. et al. 2006. Evidence that the adaptive allele of the brain size gene microcephalin introgressed into Homo sapiens from an archaic Homo lineage. PNAS 103:18178-18183.
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Wang, Y and Su, B. 2004. Human molecular genetics 13: 1131-1137.
6. The human Y-chromosome tree appears younger than the human mtDNA tree. Does this mean that females evolved before males?