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O-MEMS Fiber Switches Olav Solgaard Stanford University. Motivation Fiber switch concepts 2x2 switch Matrix switch 3-D switch Scaling Experimental demonstrations Challenges Optical quality, large switches, reliability, speed, fiber alignment, packaging……. Network impact

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o mems fiber switches olav solgaard stanford university

O-MEMS Fiber SwitchesOlav SolgaardStanford University

  • Motivation
  • Fiber switch concepts
    • 2x2 switch
    • Matrix switch
    • 3-D switch
  • Scaling
    • Experimental demonstrations
  • Challenges
    • Optical quality, large switches, reliability, speed, fiber alignment, packaging…….
    • Network impact
    • Packet switching?
  • Conclusions
beam steering optical switch
Beam Steering Optical Switch
  • Analog mirrors
  • 2N scaling
  • Lucent, C-speed,

Xros(NT),.....

fresnel zone lens
Fresnel Zone Lens

Fresnel Zone plate on polysilicon plate, which is rotated out of the plane on microhinges. The fact that the lens is an amplitude grating limits its diffraction efficiency. Lin, Lee, Pister, Wu, UCLA, 1994.

2 x 2 fiber optic switch
2 x 2 fiber-optic switch
  • Compact design
  • One-mask fabrication using DRIE on SOI
  • Integration of fibers, lenses, and micromirrors
  • 2 by 1 operation
  • By-pass switch
  • AT&T, JDSU.......

Out 2

Out 1

In 1

In 2

2x2 switch drie of soi
2x2 switch – DRIE of SOI

Springs

Fiber grooves or

channels

manipulator

comb drives

Bryant Hichwa etal, OCLI/JDS Uniphase, “A Unique Latching 2x2 MEMS Fiber Optics Switch”, Optical MEMS 2000, Kauai, August 21-24th, 2000.

drie etched vertical micromirror
DRIE etched vertical micromirror
  • Pro:
    • Simple fabrication (one masking step)
    • Simple packaging
  • Con:
    • Scaling
    • Large device count
    • Immature fabrication processes (reliability)

C. Marxer, N.F. de Rooij, Jrnl of Lightwave Tech., Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan 1999

slide8

NxN Matrix OXC

  • Simple 1 by 2 cross-points
  • Digital mirrors
  • N2 scaling
  • Large motion
  • Reliability??
  • OMM, Onix, AT&T, Agilent.....
waveguide cross connects

Vertical Directional Coupler

Champagne Switch (Agilent)

Waveguide Cross Connects

S. Yu, M. Owen, R. Varrazza, R.V. Plenty, I.H. White, “High speed optical packet routing demonstration of a vertical coupler cross point switch array”, Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics(CLEO), San Francisco, May 7-12, 2000, pp. 256-257

micromachined tilt up mirrors

100 mm

TORSIONAL

HINGE

COMB DRIVE

TORSIONAL

HINGES

COMB DRIVES

100 mm

Micromachined tilt-up mirrors

Fast-mirror design

Slow-mirror design

For 15 degrees optical deflection:

Fast mirror: 36.1 Vrms at 4.6 kHz

Slow mirror: 60 Vpp below resonance

diode laser display
Diode-laser display

CCD

camera

Laser-diode

array

Scanning

micromirror

video display system based on microscanners tv on a chip

1f

2f

1f

Video Display System Based on Microscanners (TV on a chip)

Computer controls the laser diode and both scanning mirrors

The laser beam hits the fast scanning mirror,

…and the image is projected onto the screen

Surface micromachined,

flip-up scanning mirror

... is imaged onto the slow scanning mirror,

single chip scanner layout
Single-chip scanner layout

Camera

Output Optics

Fast mirror

Acousto-Optic

Modulator

Mirror Curvature

Compensation Optics

633nm

HeNe Laser

Spatial

Filter

Slow

mirror

Output mirror

Mechanical

Shutter

Single-Chip

Raster-Scanner

two chip scanner images

a

b

d

c

g

h

e

f

Two-chip scanner images

Resolution: 62 by 66 pixels, optical scanning angles 5.3 and 5.7 degrees

Acousto-optic modulator switches the laser light off during mirror wobble.

large arrays
Large Arrays

Texas Instrument’s DMD

NASA's Next Generation Space Telescope (2008) with 4M micromirrors by Sandia NL

Lucent’s Optical X-Connect

system on a chip
System on a chip

Laser-to-fiber coupling

Micropositioners of mirrors

and gratings

High-resolution raster scanner

unique functionality
UNIQUE FUNCTIONALITY
  • Diffractive micro optics
  • Adaptive micro optics
  • Configurable holograms
  • Photonic Crystals
  • Applications:
    • 1-D and 2-D spatial light modulators (Projection displays - Silicon Light Machines)
    • Displacement sensors (AFM arrays - C. Quate)
    • IR sensors
    • Sensor integration, free-space communication
    • Diffractive lenses and holograms (Fresnel zone plates - M. Wu, UCLA)
    • Spectroscopy

Top electrode

Silicon Nitride

25 to 100 µm

Silicon Substrate

SiliconDioxide

grating light modulator
Grating Light Modulator

Beams up, reflection

Individual ribbons are from 1 to 2 µm wide and from 25 to 100 µm long.

Top electrode

Silicon Nitride

Beams down, diffraction

Silicon Substrate

Silicon Dioxide

Substrate electrode

Cross section

high contrast glm
High-contrast GLM

Dark State

Bright State

sinon

sinoff

high speed switching
High Speed Switching

GLV devices switch in as little as 20 nsec (~1,000 times faster than TI DMD)

down

  • Light Output

up

time

20 nsec Switching Speed

grating light valve technology
Grating Light Valve Technology

Basic Projection System

GLV

  • Advantages:
    • Traditional light source and projection system
  • Disadvantages:
    • 2-D Addressing
    • Large Array =>Low yield
sems of grating light valve
SEMs of Grating Light Valve

1-D Grating Light Valve with Silicon nitride ribbons. The detailed picture shows the termination of the ribbons and the addressing lines. Courtesy Silicon Light Machines.

glv device reliability
GLV Device Reliability
  • Ribbon material is Silicon Nitride — a stable ceramic material
  • Device operates at small fraction of material’s tensile breaking stress
  • Ratio of [ribbon length]:[max deflection] is about 800:1
  • No contact between ribbon and substrate
  • Negligible change in natural frequency after equivalent of 10,000 hours of television use

Courtesy of Silicon Light Machines

glv pixel fundamental contrast
GLV Pixel Fundamental Contrast

>2000:1 contrast at the GLV device

Courtesy of Silicon Light Machines

the scanned glv architecture
Relative to Scanned Beam (CRT)

1,000X lower channel bandwidth

Natural gamma, smoothly blended images

Variable aspect ratios without light loss

Relative to 2-D Panel

2,000X fewer pixels, smaller silicon die size

Retains high optical MTF

No “screen door” effect

The Scanned GLV Architecture

Courtesy of Silicon Light Machines

glm characteristics
GLM Characteristics
  • Small (/4) required deflection
    • High Speed
    • Good heat dissipation

=> high power-handling capability

    • 1-D implementation & simple structure

=> High Yield

    • CMOS “compatible”

=> Inexpensive, flexible fabrication

    • “On-chip” interferometer
    • Good reliability
mems phased arrays
MEMS Phased Arrays

Linear array of piston-motion mirrors for beam steering. Each micromirror is 110 mm long and 27 mm wide. D.M. Burns and V.M. Bright 1997.

variable blaze grating
Variable Blaze Grating

Variable Blaze grating with torsional hinges for tilting of each element in the array. Burns, Bright, and Gustavson 1997.