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Francisco O. Ramirez Stanford University School of Education

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  1. GLOBALIZATION, CITIZENSHIP, AND EDUCATIONInvited Address to the Sociedad de Investigación Educativa Peruana Francisco O. Ramirez Stanford University School of Education

  2. Overview I. Education and nation building: the political incorporation dynamic II. A neo-institutional world society perspective: Enacting the progress-oriented nation state III. Moving toward post-national citizenship: cosmopolitanism (human rights), multiculturalism (diversity), and personal empowerment (active learner)

  3. I. Education and Nation Building:Political Incorporation A. Educational trends B. Implications C. Main inference

  4. A. Educational Trends • Expansion of schooling • Compulsory schooling • National education ministry formation • Expanded women’s access • Triumph of education as solution to a wide range of problems, and as the root of these problems

  5. B. Implications • All people are educable • All people are capable of becoming citizens • All nation-states must transform its masses into educated citizens

  6. C. Main Inference • What was once contested terrain -- were these people really educable? -- has become institutionalized domain. • Educability and capacity for citizenship have become taken for granted.

  7. II. Neo-Institutional World Society Perspective: Enacting the Progress-Oriented Nation-State • World models of progress • The nation-state as embodiment of progress • Mass schooling as symbolic commitment to progress • Mass schooling as mandatory nation-state project: logic of appropriateness • The role of experts and organizations in transmitting these models

  8. Two Comparative Education Research Projects A. The Adoption of Associated Schools Study B. The Textbook Analysis Study

  9. MOVING TOWARD POST NATIONAL CITIZENSHIP : HUMAN RIGHTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION TRENDS

  10. UNESCO Associated Schools MISSION: To conduct pilot projects on • World concerns and the role of the United Nations System B. Human rights, democracy, and tolerance (Transatlantic Slave Trade education project of 1998: 21 countries) C. Intercultural learning (Mondialogo School Contest to promote understanding between civilizations in 2003: 126 countries) D. Environmental education (Caribbean Sea Project of 1994: 17 countries)

  11. Explaining Adoption of UNESCO Associated Schools • Modernization Hypothesis 1: The more a country is characterized by a greater degree of economic, political, and educational development, the greater the likelihood of its joining the UNESCO Associated School Project. • Diffusion Hypothesis 2: The more countries in a region and throughout the world adopt a UNESCO Associated School, the more likely additional countries will adopt the reform. • Structuration Hypothesis 3: The more international organizations are founded and structured, the more likely a country adopts the UNESCO Associated Schools Project. • Linkage Hypothesis 4: The more a country is linked to or embedded in the human rights regime, the greater the likelihood of its joining the Associated Schools project

  12. Definition of variables

  13. UNESCO Associated Schools

  14. Textbooks Cosmopolitan, Internationalist, and Child-Centric Emphases: Analyzing 324 Textbooks from Sixty Countries

  15. Conclusions