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Stanford University

Stanford University

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Stanford University

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  1. Stanford University Stanford Historical SocietyA BRIEF HISTORY OF CCRMAJohn Chowning Osgood Hooker Professor of Fine Arts and Professor of Music, Emeritus May 15 jc@ccrma.stanford.eduThe Center for Computer Research in Music and AcousticsCCRMA

  2. Stanford Symphony Orchestra1964 JC Joan Mansour BRASSES TRUMPETS TROMBONES TUBA TYMPANI PERCUSSION HORNS WOODWINDS STRINGS STRINGS Sandor Salgo CONDUCTOR

  3. Joan Mansour & Max Mathews meet for the 1st time200743 years later

  4. Max standing next to IBM 7094 (BTL) Max Mathews, to whom we owe much,1926 - 2011 John chowning

  5. “There are no theoretical limitations to the performance of the computer as a source of musical sounds, in contrast to the performance of ordinary instruments.” • Mathews, M.V., “The Digital Computer as a Musical Instrument,” Science, Vol. 142, No. 3592, 553-557, 1963. John chowning

  6. Max Mathews’ sound synthesis program–Music IV DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER COMPUTER LOUDSPEAKER DAC In the Summer of 1964 on a visit to BTL, Max gave me the program and its compiler in a box and said forcefully “DON’T DROP THE CARDS!” Compared to electronic music studios of the time, with circuit boards, test equipment, wires and patch cords, I would not have to learn to solder But, I had to learn to program! this was a conceptually simple system having three well-defined stages and pieces of machinery.

  7. Stanford Symphony Orchestra1964 JC David Poole Joan Mansour BRASSES TRUMPETS TROMBONES TUBA TYMPANI PERCUSSION HORNS WOODWINDS STRINGS STRINGS CONDUCTOR

  8. David Poole(my angel)

  9. Computer Music Project moved with the AI Laboratory from Pine Hall to the D. C. Power Laboratory in 1966

  10. D. C. Power Lab at 1600 Arastradero Rd.

  11. Leland Smith

  12. Leland Smith’s “Score” programs • Score as complement to Max’s synthesis program • 1967-68 begins adapting Score for music printing

  13. Score became, and remains, the hi-end industry standard

  14. Music for loudspeakers sounds moving through an illusory sound space 0º 90º 90º 0º CH2 CH1 listeners CH3 CH4 I continued my work in creating music in an illusory space that would allow compositional constructions in which sound could be positioned and moved through the space. Listeners space within the speaker perimeter 0º 90º 90º 0º

  15. Localizationand Moving Sound Sources 90º 0º 90º FAST 0º FASTER FASTER YET! CH2 CH1 CH4 CH3 0º 90º 90º J.M. Chowning 11/30/02

  16. x x x x DIRECT SIGNAL Spatial Processing Scheme -1968 1 CONTROL SIGNALS dd d CH1 dt (doppler) (distance) SIGNAL→REVERB Original signal FM AM AM + 1 CH2 1.0 - x % signal (to rev) AM + 2 CH3 x AM AM + 3 CH4 1 √d • REALIZATIONS • COMPUTERS AND LANGUAGES: • ALLOW DIRECT CONROL OF THE MATERIAL OF MUSIC • SOUND STRUCTURE AND MUSIC STRUCTURE CAN BE JOINED IN A NEW WAY • THE VALUE OF A MULTI-DISCIPLINARY ENVIRONMENT • MY EARS ARE MY MOST IMPORTANT TOOL! + AM 4 x Rev CH1 + Rev CH2 + Rev CH3 + Rev CH4 + System to process signal using functions shown in preceding slide.

  17. x x x x DIRECT SIGNAL Spatial Processing Scheme -1968 1 CONTROL SIGNALS dd DAC d CH1 dt (doppler) (distance) SIGNAL→REVERB Original signal FM AM AM + 1 CH2 1.0 - x % signal (to rev) AM + 2 CH3 x AM AM + 3 CH4 1 √d + AM 4 x Rev CH1 + Rev CH2 + Rev CH3 + Rev CH4 +

  18. (still, without knowing how to solder) METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR SIMULATING LOCATION AND MOVEMENT OF SOUND Patent number: 3665105Filing date: Mar 9, 1970Issue date: May 1972 Income: a few thousand $ (enough to purchase a 4-ch sound recording system)

  19. Discovery of FM Synthesis November, 1967

  20. FM EQUATION AND THE TRIGONOMETRIC EXPANSION e = Asin(2πfct+Isin2πfmt) e =A{J0(I)sin αt + J1(I)[sin(α+β)t - sin(α-β)t] + J2(I)[sin(α+2β)t + sin(α-2β)t] + J3(I)[sin(α+3β)t - sin (α-3β)t] … + Jn(I)[sin(α+nβ)t ± sin(α+nβ)t]} The FM paper can be downloaded from https://ccrma.stanford.edu/people/john-chowning For a complete description of FM/PM Synthesis see Bill Schottstaedt's tutorial https://ccrma.stanford.edu/software/snd/snd/fm.html

  21. m = 1.4 = 1.0 Percussive tones Brass-like tones + c = 1.0 + modulation Index (bandwidth) amplitude I B a n d w i d t h frequency

  22. Synthesis of the Singing Voice by Means of Frequency Modulation. Current Directions in Computer Music Research, Edited by Max V. Mathews and John R. Pierce, MIT Press, 1989. + Singing voice + + + modulation Index (bandwidth) 1 2 3 amplitude Formants (resonances) 1 2 3 Vibrato with resonances causes complex modulation of the partials, enriching the color. AMP f 3f 2f … FREQ John M. Chowning

  23. METHOD OF SYNTHESIZING A MUSICAL SOUND Patent number: 4018121Filing date: May 2, 1975Issue date: Apr 19, 1977 Income: ?

  24. 1975 - Founding of theCenter for Computer Research in Music and AcousticsCCRMA (kar·ma) Leland Smith John Grey Loren Rush John Chowning from the beginning, our work was multidisciplinary James (Andy) Moorer Photo Patte Wood

  25. Ligeti at Stanford Jan –Jun 1972 --informed Boulez of our work

  26. 1975- Pierre Boulez brings IRCAM team to CCRMA for two week course in computer music James (Andy) Moorer John Chowning Max Mathews Pierre Boulez Steve Martin – graduate student Photo Patte Wood

  27. IRCAM- 1979 PDP-10 John Chowning Max Mathews John Pierce Jean-Claude Risset

  28. Pete Samson with the “SamsonBox” digital synthesizer — a highly optimized computer for synthesizing and processing audio signals in real-time. It was built for CCRMA in 1977 and was retired in 1992. It is now part of the collection at the Musée de la Musique in the Cité de la Musique, Paris. In early January 2010, Mike McNabb and Bill Schottstaedt generated the original music for Mars in 3D using a software emulator of the Samson Box programmed by Bill Schottstaedt. Mute! The “Samson Box” Digital synthesizerc Mute off!

  29. 1983 – DX7

  30. METHOD OF SYNTHESIZING A MUSICAL SOUND Patent number: 4018121Filing date: May 2, 1975Issue date: Apr 19, 1977 Income: a lot more than the 1st patent (enough to endow CCRMA, thanks to Stanford) ?

  31. 1985-Move to the Knoll Heidi Kugler Patte Wood John R. Pierce 1910 - 2001

  32. 1996 – CHOWNING RETIRES – CHRIS CHAFE IS APPOINTED DIRECTOR Chris Chafe Director CCRMA Julius Smith Jay Kadis Nette Worthey Max Mathews 1926-2011 AND CCRMA FLOURISHES Radio Baton The JOS Global Index Recording Engineering Planet CCRMA CLM Heidi Kugler Tricia Schroeter Patte Wood Fernando oLpez-Lezcano Bill Schottstaedt

  33. 1996 - 2013 Chris Chafe Director CCRMA INSTRUMENT MAKING Jonathan Berger Julius Smith Jay Kadis Nette Worthey Takako Fujioka HAGIA SOPHIA Max died April 2011 Max Mathews 1926-2011 MODULATIONS Ge Wang Tricia Schroeter LISTENING ROOM Bill retired 2012 Jonathan Abel Fernando Lopez-Lezcano Sasha Leitman Carr Wilkerson Bill Schottstaedt

  34. CHRIS CHAFE CHRIS CHAFE BANF/SEOUL/NY/SAN DIEGO STANFORD/ST JOHNS -NETWORK CONCERTS -SONIFICATION -HUMAN/COMPUTER PERFORMANCE STANFORD/BEIJING

  35. JULIUS SMITH JULIUS SMITH A waveguide model of a cylindrical tube with a conical tip Pablo CastellanosMacin MEXICO RomainMichon FRANCE -FAUST -DIGITAL WAVEGUIDES -STUDENTS Waveguide model of a bowed string Zhengshan Shi CHINA Impulse response from a Schroeder / Feedback Delay Network reverberator (recently implemented in Faust)

  36. JONATHAN BERGER Sonification of satellite data from Jiyeh 2007 oil spill -SONIFICATION

  37. JONATHAN BERGER JONATHAN BERGER -SONIFICATION -MUSIC AND THE BRAIN -OPERAS THEOTOKIA THE WAR REPORTER

  38. GE WANG GE WANG CHUCK AUDIO PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE & BOOK OCARINA, FOR IPHONE (OVER 10 MILLION DOWNLOADS) STANFORD LAPTOP ORCHESTRA

  39. Interests of my research • Biological nature of human musicality • How does our brain work to understand sounds? • How does the brain change when learning musical skills? • How do learning and brain development/aging interact? • How can that knowledge be used for education, therapy, and sound application? TAKAKO FUJIOKA TAKAKO FUJIOKA

  40. The upcoming NeuroMusic Lab @ CCRMA!! TAKAKO FUJIOKA TAKAKO FUJIOKA -BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE -BEHAVIOURAL AND EEG ANALYSIS -MOTION, VIDEO, AND AUDIO ANALYSIS - REHABILITATION

  41. the teaching/research is enriched further (and still) by David Berners Intermedia Workshop Perceptual Audio Coding Introduction to Digital Audio Signal Processing Max Mathews 1926-2011 JaroslawKapuscinski Marina Bosi Poppy Crum Music Gaming and Neuroplasticity Tom Rossing Computational Models of Sound Perception Musical Acoustics Eleanor Selfridge-Field Malcolm Slaney Music Query, Analysis, and StyleSimulation

  42. STUDENTS FACULTY STAFF STUDENTS FACULTY STAFF DISCOVERY INVENTION CREATION TEACHING PUBLICATION PERFORMANCE COMMUNICATION Photo Patte Wood