Chapter 12: Imperialism: 1867-1908. Section 2: The Spanish-American War. 1. . Americans were outraged because they found governor Weyler had ordered Cubans into reconcentration camps. .
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Americans were outraged because they found governor Weyler had ordered Cubans into reconcentration camps.
The housing in these areas was typically abandoned, decaying, roofless, and virtually uninhabitable. Food was scarce and famine and disease quickly swept through the camps. By 1898, one third of Cuba's population had been forcibly sent into the concentration camps. Over 400,000 Cubans died as a result of the Spanish Reconcentration Policy.
Although President Cleveland preserved strict neutrality, or the refusal to take sides, in the Cuban struggle, he warned if “the useless sacrifice of human life” went on, the United States might have to abandon the policy of “patient waiting”.
William McKinley became the President in the middle of the conflict.
The Maine was a battleship that exploded killing 260 crew members.
Congress declared war with Spain on April 25, 1898 because Spain refused to evacuate Cuba.
Theodore Roosevelt firmly believed that this war was a prime opportunity to expand the territories of the United States.
On February 25, 1898 John Long ordered a Pacific squadron to sail for the Philippines if war broke out.
The Spanish surrendered the Philippine Islands to the United States.
At this time the Army had 28,000 volunteers. McKinley actually wanted 200,000.
The “Rough Riders” were an assortment of college athletes, cowboys, miners, & law officials led by Theodore Roosevelt.
There was an all black 110th cavalry in the Spanish American War. 4 African Americans were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
After the surrender of Santiago, the United States gained Puerto Rico, which had been a Spanish possession.
The “splendid little war” cost 5,000 American lives, mostly due to disease and food.
The Spanish American War and the prospect of expanding in the Pacific brought a change of policy toward the Hawaiian Islands.
By July 1898, before the war ended, the Hawaiian Islands were annexed by a joint resolution of Congress.
In the treaty, Spain gave up control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Pacific island of Guam, & Philippine Islands.
The Philippines would be difficult to govern because they consisted of 7100 islands, 7.5 million people, 43 ethnic groups, 87 different languages and dialects.
Emilio Aguinaldo set up a revolutionary government against the United States.
Fighting between U.S. and Filipino forces broke out in February 1899.
Within 2 months, the Filipinos had been driven from their capital city, and the government fled.
The Philippines remained a territory of the United States until 1946.
The longest single period of time between two major acquisitions for the U.S. was 42 years.
The Constitution guarantees certain rights to all Americans.
The Supreme Court decided that the Constitution did not cover overseas possessions.
The Platt Amendment governed relations between Cuba and the U.S. for 33 years.
In 1917 Puerto Rico was granted territorial status and made citizens of the United States.
American Foreign Trade:1870-1914
William Jennings Bryan’s main campaign issue in 1900 was imperialism.
McKinley believed that imperialism was the right course in 1900 because American production had increase so much that America needed more markets.
Roosevelt wanted to build a canal through panama so ships could pass between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
Colombia turned down the canal offer because the price was too low.
To resolve the issue Panama declared independence.
The Roosevelt Corollary was an addition to the Monroe Doctrine that allowed for United States intervention against wrongdoings of American republics.
The corollary was first applied in the Dominican Republic.
President Taft characterized his diplomatic policy as “substituting dollars for bullets”, or emphasizing trade instead of warfare.
European nations attempted to control economic development in China by forcing China to lease its ports to them.
The Open Door Policy stated that countries with leaseholds in China would open ports to vessels of all nations on equal terms.
The goal of the Boxer Rebellion was to wipe out foreigners as well as Christian converts.
Hay’s second round of Open Door notes hoped to discourage the partitioning of China by lease-holding countries.
Korea and Manchuria brought Russian and Japan into war.
The Russo-Japanese war was settled: Japan won the southern half of the island and Russian interests in return for giving up claims to payment of damages.
The Treaty of Portsmouth made Japan a bigger threat than Russia in terms of the balance of power in East Asia.
Nobel Peace Prize for Teddy