Imperialism: The Scramble for Africa • What were the motives of European colonizers during the scramble for Africa?
Exploration of Africa 1. Europeans could not navigate the rivers of interior Africa • Mid 1800s: Africa was divided into various kingdoms • European countries controlled a few areas along the coastlines (10%) – Why? 2. African armies/lack of interest keep Europeans out of interior Africa • Invention of the steam engine, made it possible for Europeans to navigate interior rivers • A British missionary named David Livingstone would be one of the first Europeans to explore interior Africa • Livingstone’s goal to convert Africans to Christianity – stop slave trade • Livingstone tells great stories about Africa, then disappears. American newspaper hires Henry Stanley to try to find him
Livingstone Explores Africa – Answer Ques in notes • What was the reason David Livingstone explored Africa? • How was Africa perceived by most Europeans and how did Livingstone’s journey change those perceptions? • To what part of Africa did Livingstone actually have to leave the continent? (map) • What two African lakes did Livingstone explore? (map) • What was the significance of Livingstone’s explorations?
After finding Livingstone, Stanley explores along the Congo River • Explorations attract the interest of Belgian King Leopold II • King Leopold hires Stanley to help obtain land in the Congo • Leopold claims he wants to convert Africans to Christianity and help end slave trade, but really wants minerals & rubber in the region • 10 million Africans die due to abuses during Leopold’s rule • Belgian Gov takes Congo away from Leopold • Belgian Congo 80x bigger than Belgium. Rest of Europe worried they don’t have a piece, scramble for the rest of Africa begins
Mad Scramble for Africa Political Cartoon Portugal Spain Italy Germany France Belgium Britain 1. Identify the people in the cartoon 2. Identify the action in the cartoon Netherlands
Berlin Conference • The discovery of diamonds and gold also intensify the scramble • European countries feared war could break out over Africa • 1884: To prevent conflict, European nations meet at the Berlin Conference to lay down rules for the colonization of Africa • Most powerful countries would claim areas they wanted first • African leaders or people are not consulted
Why Does Imperialism happen in Africa? 1) Europeans want raw materials for their factories + new markets 2) Wanted to gain new colonies for national pride/power 3) Racism & Social Darwinism • Racism = Belief of the superiority of one race • Social Darwinism = Idea that “survival of the fittest” applies to humans 4) Missionaries wanted to convert Africa to Christianity • How does Imperialism happen in Africa? 1) European technological advances (weapons, steamboats, medicine communications) 2) Variety of cultures and languages keep Africans disunified • How does this effect Africans? 1. Cash crops instead of “food” crops 2. Different ethnic groups forced together into a country