If you are missing a notebook, come find it on the front desk. Extra help: Tuesdays 8:15-9:00 pm - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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If you are missing a notebook, come find it on the front desk. Extra help: Tuesdays 8:15-9:00 pm
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If you are missing a notebook, come find it on the front desk. Extra help: Tuesdays 8:15-9:00 pm

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  1. If you are missing a notebook, come find it on the front desk. • Extra help: Tuesdays 8:15-9:00 pm • Thursdays 7:00-8:00 pm • Chem is try!!

  2. Atomic Emission Spectra • Read p. 54-59

  3. What is light? • White light: reflection of all colors • Black light: absorption of all colors • Colors are each a different wavelength (λ: lamda) of light

  4. Colors • Different wavelengths of light are seen as different colors.

  5. Question of the Day • Where are the electrons around the nucleus?

  6. Study the light emitted (produced) by atoms and ions to deduce (find out) the structure of atoms. • When an atom is “excited” its electrons gain energy and move to a higher energy level. To return to a lower energy level, electrons must lose energy. They do this by giving off light.

  7. Continuous spectrum: all wavelengths of visible light contained in white light. • Light emitted by an atom can be separated into a line spectrum that shows exactly what frequencies of light are present.

  8. Because the light emitted from atoms is a line spectrum (not a continuous spectrum) we determine that: • There are “discrete” (separate) energy levels for each atom that can only produce light of certain wavelengths (this is NOT ordinary white light!).

  9. c=fλ (velocity of light = frequency x wavelength) • the greater the frequency the shorter the wavelength • ΔE = hf • (energy lost by the electron = h(constant) x frequency • Frequency (and thus, color) of the light depends on the amount of energy lost by the electron.

  10. ΔE = hf c=fλ Frequency (f) increases Wavelength(λ) increases

  11. Increasing frequency (f) (increasing energy)

  12. Increasing frequency (f) (increasing energy)

  13. c=fλ

  14. When atoms are “exited” (energy is added) they produce light. • Not white or all-colored light, but one color at a time. • Different colors indicate (show) different energy levels.

  15. Hydrogen Emission Spectrum • Only certain energy levels can occur (not a continuous spectrum)

  16. Energy Level Diagram Increasing frequency • The larger the difference in energy, the greater the frequency (thus, the more purple the light). Visible

  17. Increasing frequency Visible

  18. Increasing frequency Further from nucleus Closer to nucleus

  19. convergence:the lines in a spectrum converge (get closer together) as frequency increases. • related to how much energy is required to remove the electron from the atom (ionize)

  20. Stop

  21. If you are missing a notebook (lab or class/homework), please come to my desk at 5:10 pm today. • Extra help: Tuesdays 8:15-9:00 pm • Thursdays 7:00-8:00 pm • Chem is try!!

  22. When electrons are excited, they emit colors in a line spectrum. Only certain wavelengths of light are produced. Since c=flamda only certain frequencies are produced. Since ChangeE=hf, only certain changes in energy occur. Thus, electrons can not be making all changes in Energy, but only changes between discrete, separate energy levels.

  23. Electronic Structure Energy Levels Shells

  24. Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table • 1st energy level = 2 • 2nd energy level = 8 • Electronic structure: number of electrons in each energy level • After second level – more complicated • they don’t fill in order – more later

  25. 2 2 2 8 2 8 5

  26. H=1 • O=2,6 (two electrons in the first energy level, six in the second) • Al=2,8,3 • S= • Cl= • Ar= • Different isotopes have the same electronic structure and the same chemical properties!

  27. Electron Behavior • Valence shell: outer energy level of an atom • determine the physical and chemical properties of an atom Valence Shell

  28. 1 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 Valence electrons Group Period

  29. How many electrons in valence shell? • Al • Ne • Li • Ca

  30. Stop here 

  31. Electronic Structure of Atoms Zumdahl2: p. 307-312

  32. Electronic Structure Energy levels Sub-levels Orbital Spin (electrons)

  33. Energy Levels • Major shells (layers) around the nucleus • filled before higher levels are filled • 1st: 2 electrons • 2nd: 8 electrons

  34. Sub-levels • Different shapes • s – sphere • one orbital • p – figure eight • three orbitals • d – • five orbitals • f – • seven orbitals

  35. p Sub-level • p sub-level has three orbitals • px, py, pz

  36. d and f sub-levels have very complex shapes

  37. Orbitals • Each orbital can hold two electrons. • Electrons spin in opposite directions