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A Survey of Forwarding Strategies for WSN’s. Akshay Bhole Subhani Basha Peta Meena Krishnappa CEN 5531 - Mobile Computing Fall 2006. Outline. Introduction Traditional Forwarding Strategies Energy Efficient Forwarding Scheme Balanced Energy Consumption Scheme Supply Chain Scheme

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

A Survey of Forwarding Strategies for WSN’s

Akshay Bhole

Subhani Basha Peta

Meena Krishnappa

CEN 5531 - Mobile Computing

Fall 2006

slide2

Outline

  • Introduction
  • Traditional Forwarding Strategies
  • Energy Efficient Forwarding Scheme
  • Balanced Energy Consumption Scheme
  • Supply Chain Scheme
  • Comparison
  • Conclusion
slide3

Outline

  • Introduction
  • Traditional Forwarding Strategies
  • Energy Efficient Forwarding Scheme
  • Balanced Energy Consumption Scheme
  • Supply Chain Scheme
  • Comparison
  • Conclusion
slide4

Introduction

Motivation

  • Search for efficient path from Source to Sink
  • Traditional Methods
    • Minimize Transmissions
    • Maximize end-to-end delivery
  • No focus on Energy Efficiency
  • Energy Efficiency gives better Trade-off between Delivery Rate & Required Energy
slide5

Outline

  • Introduction
  • Traditional Forwarding Strategies
  • Energy Efficient Forwarding Scheme
  • Balanced Energy Consumption Scheme
  • Supply Chain Scheme
  • Comparison
  • Conclusion
slide6

TraditionalMethods

  • Hop Based Forwarding
  • Optimal Hop Based Forwarding
  • PRR Based Forwarding
  • MT Forwarding
  • Er based Forwarding
slide7

Traditional Methods

Hop Based Forwarding

  • Idea
  • Establish reverse path using a hop counter
  • Packets are forwarded along the reverse path with decreasing hop counters
  • Drawback
  • Neighboring nodes may have lossy links
  • Neighboring node might be too far away
  • Many retransmissions might be necessary
slide8

Traditional Methods

PRR Based Forwarding

  • Idea
  • Downgrade neighbor nodes having low hop counter and poor links
  • Forwarding nodes selection based on
  • Distance
  • Link Quality
  • Selection of best forwarder done by minimizing
slide9

Traditional Methods

MT Forwarding

  • Idea
  • Minimize the overall packet transmissions along the source-to-sink path.
  • Drawback
  • delivery rate not considered
  • might not be the most energy-efficient forwarding strategy for
  • Re-Transmissions ≠∞
slide10

Traditional Methods

Er based Forwarding

Idea

Focus on the end-to-end delivery rate and attempts to maximize Eir

Drawback

Doesn’t work well with Multi-Link Forwarding Strategies

slide11

Outline

  • Introduction
  • Traditional Forwarding Strategies
  • Energy Efficient Forwarding Scheme
  • Balanced Energy Consumption Scheme
  • Supply Chain Scheme
  • Comparison
  • Conclusion
slide12

Energy Efficient Forwarding

Energy Efficient Forwarding

  • Idea
  • To find the most energy-efficient forwarding path in the network
  • Types of Energy Efficient Forwarding Schemes
  • Single Link
  • Multi Link
  • How is it done?
  • Forwarding Set – Identify Potential Forwarding nodes
  • Node that maximizes Eieffis selected as the forwarder
  • End-to-End reception rate and Energy is taken into account
slide13

Energy Efficient Forwarding

Comparison of Single-Link & Multi-Link

slide14

Energy Efficient Forwarding

Traditional v/s EEF

Influence of Node Density

slide15

Energy Efficient Forwarding

Traditional v/s EEF

Influence of contention probabilities

slide16

Energy Efficient Forwarding

Traditional v/s EEF

Influence of receiving energy costs

slide17

Outline

  • Introduction
  • Traditional Forwarding Strategies
  • Energy Efficient Forwarding Scheme
  • Balanced Energy Consumption Scheme
  • Supply Chain Scheme
  • Comparison
  • Conclusion
slide18

Balanced Energy Consumption Scheme

  • Factors to be considered while designing routing protocols
    • Energy Conservation
    • Network Lifetime
    • End-to-End Delivery Rate
  • Do Shortest Path algorithms provide a good solution?
slide19

Balanced Energy Consumption Scheme

Energy Efficient Routing Algorithms

LEAR(AODV) : Local Energy Aware Routing based on AODV

PAR(AODV) : Power Aware Routing based on AODV

LPR(AODV) : Lifetime Prediction Routing based on AODV

lear aodv

Balanced Energy Consumption Scheme

LEAR – AODV
  • Routing Metric – Remaining Battery Life (Er)

Is Er >  ?

lear aodv23

Balanced Energy Consumption Scheme

LEAR – AODV
  • Routing Metric – Remaining Battery Life (Er)

Reverse path

Established

slide26

Outline

  • Introduction
  • Traditional Forwarding Strategies
  • Energy Efficient Forwarding Scheme
  • Balanced Energy Consumption Scheme
  • Supply Chain Scheme
  • Comparison
  • Conclusion
slide27

Supply Chain Forwarding

What is Supply chain ?

slide28

Supply Chain Scheme

Supply Chain Forwarding

  • Different Strategies:
  • Push Strategies
  • Pull Strategies
  • Hybrid Strategies
slide29

Supply Chain Scheme

Modeling Sensor Networks as Supply Chain

Modeling Sensor Networks as Supply Chain

slide30

Supply Chain Scheme

Routing Protocols

Data Diffusion – Pull strategy

Spin – Push Strategy

slide32

Supply Chain Scheme

Parts of the Network

Manufacture Area:

Data Collection

Data Aggregation

Decision regarding the Forwarding scheme

Transport Area:

Zone Flooding Scheme

slide33

Supply Chain Scheme

Parts of the Network

slide34

Supply Chain Scheme

Novel Features

  • Sensor Field Partition is only conceptual and application dependent
  • Different Forwarding Mechanisms
  • Local Broadcasting in manufacture area
  • Zone Flooding in Transportation area
  • Unicast based routing in Warehouse area
slide35

Supply Chain Scheme

Benefits

  • Scalable and flexible, and reduces the difficulty of designing a feasible overall routing scheme
  • Zone flooding scheme attempts to improve the energy efficiency of flooding by restricting the flooding range in the spatial domain and further improve the energy efficiency in the temporal domain
  • An energy-efficient cost metric can be used in the warehouse area to set up energy-efficient paths
slide36

Supply Chain Scheme

Evaluation Metrics

  • Event Delivery Ratio (EDR)
  • Normalized Energy Consumption
  • End-to-End Delay
  • Average routing overhead
slide37

Outline

  • Introduction
  • Traditional Forwarding Strategies
  • Energy Efficient Forwarding Scheme
  • Balanced Energy Consumption Scheme
  • Energy Efficient Dissemination Scheme
  • Comparison
  • Conclusion
slide39

Outline

  • Introduction
  • Traditional Forwarding Strategies
  • Energy Efficient Forwarding Scheme
  • Balanced Energy Consumption Scheme
  • Energy Efficient Dissemination Scheme
  • Comparison
  • Conclusion
slide40

References

1. Energy-Efficient Forwarding Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks

Marcel Busse, Thomas Haenselmann, and Wolfgang Effelsberg

Computer Science IV - University of Mannheim, Seminargeb¨aude A5 -68159 Mannheim, Germany

WoWMoM’06

2. A Comparison of Lifetime-Efficient Forwarding Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks

Marcel Busse, Thomas Haenselmann, and Wolfgang Effelsberg

Computer Science IV, University of Mannheim Seminargeb¨aude A5, D-68159 Mannheim, Germany

PE-WASUN 06

3. A robust and energy-efficient data dissemination framework for wireless sensor networks

Wei Liu · Yanchao Zhang · Wenjing Lou · Yuguang Fang

Wireless Netw (2006)

4. New Routing for Balanced Energy Consumption in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

S.-M. Senouci, France Telecom R&D 2 Avenue Pierre Marzin, 22307, Lannion, France

M. Naimi Department of Computer Science LICP EA 2175 University of Cergy-Pontoise, France

PE-WASUN ‘05