Smoke is to Fire as STEAM is to . . . ? Dr. Michael D. Fridley OACTE, April 12, 2013
Science Technology Engineering Mathematics
Sputnik I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth. President John F. Kennedy May 25, 1961
Sputnik But if I were to say, my fellow citizens, that we shall send to the moon, 240,000 miles away from the control station in Houston, a giant rocket more than 300 feet tall, the length of this football field, made of new metal alloys, some of which have not yet been invented. President John F. Kennedy September 12, 1962
We are currently preparing students for jobs that don’t yet exist, using technologies that haven’t been invented, in order to solve problems we don’t even know are problems yet. Richard Riley Secretary of Education under President Clinton (quoted by Karl Fisch, Did You Know/Shift Happens 2010 video)
STEM Focus • 1892 • The Committee of Ten at Harvard • A response to the gaps in the agrarian school system of the 1800s • Described the attributes of a good industrial school system that would raise the standards of excellence for modern students
Architecture is "frozen music"… Really there is something in this; the tone of mind produced by architecture approaches the effect of music. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Filippo Brunelleschi, 1377-1446 Portrait in a painting by Massachio
May not music be described as mathematics of the sense, mathematics as music of the reason? James Joseph Sylvester 19th century English mathematician
Music is a secret arithmetical exercise and the person who indulges in it does not realize that he is manipulating numbers. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz 17th century German mathematician and philosopher who developed the infinitesimal calculus independently of Isaac Newton and designed a “calculating machine”
The Term “STEM” • The National Science Foundation • SMET • Dr. Judith Ramaley • Assistant Director of Education and Human Resources, 2001-2004 • Learning in the context of real-world problems
Why STEM? • Economic competition • Workforce competition • Innovation competition • Education competition
No Explicit Integration • Content areas taught separately • Connections may be made between disciplines Technology Science Engineering Mathematics
Combining Two or More Content Areas • Using enrichment activities • One content area is in service to the other(s) Technology Science Engineering Mathematics
Curriculum Shares Content from All Four Disciplines • Content areas overlap, but still separate • Often involving problem-solving projects T M S E
One Subject is Central • All other content areas serve the central one Technology Science Engineering Mathematics
According tothe National Science Foundation: • The great scientific and technological breakthroughs are expected at the intersection of the disciplines.
Curriculum Supports Understanding in Two or More Content Areas • Combined curriculum • Standards are met in all content areas Science and Technology Engineering and Mathematics
Fully Integrated STEM • The whole is greater than the sum of its parts Science Technology Engineering Mathematics
STEM is a way of thinking that: • Focuses on integrating STEM habits • Uses Interdisciplinary Facilitation & Assessment • Is a dynamic approach to learning • Emphasizes problem solving & critical thinking • Supports STEM Career readiness
STEM is not a thing, it is an attitude of systematically applying Science, Technology & Math to the real world of engineering, design and problem-solving. Dr. Randall Peterson Principal, Eastview High School
STEM education is not: • Extra science & math classes • Strictly structured curriculum • Simply using technology in “non-STEM” courses • Only for Talented and Gifted Students
Questions to Ask • Is there an agreed-upon definition of STEM education for the stakeholders? • Is there an agreed-upon goal for STEM in your context? • Are any of the four STEM disciplines integrated in instruction or the curriculum?
What’s Right for You? • Coordination • Teaching similar topics at the same time • Collaboration • Theme teaching • Discipline based • Integration • Submersion in a topic with all disciplines recognized equally All methods may be appropriate at various times
Based on Research & Current Thinking STEM education should … • Integrate STEM disciplines • Include authentic experiences • Apply technologies • Offer multiple pathways for learning • Provide deeper learning through critical thinking, problem solving, creativity and innovation
STEM Schools • No agreed-upon definition • More intensive approach to a traditional curriculum • Emphasize project-based learning and integrating ideas across disciplines • Focus on a particular occupational theme
However . . . Some schools may add the label without making real changes Barbara Means Researcher at SRI International
You get this vast hue and cry for STEM, which is a good thing, but then you have to enact something. A lot of my friends are using the term 'random acts of STEM,' which is a lot of what happens. Thomas T. Peters Executive Director of South Carolina's Coalition for Mathematics and Science
All music is folk music. I ain't never heard a horse sing a song. Big Bill Broonzy American folk and blues singer
Me Too-ism • Whole schools are now marketing themselves as STEM institutes, magnets, charters, and academies to attract students and cash in on grant funding that comes with the brand.
More Me Too-ism • Every high school in the District had adopted an extra math course. • The school hadn't bothered to change the curriculum or teaching styles at all. But henceforth, they would call themselves a STEM school. • STEM = CTE
Some Antidotes to Me Too-ism • CTE programs offer an important instructional approach that strengthens students’ understanding of STEM content and helps attract more individuals into STEM career pathways. (ACTE) • At the heart of any STEM program should be courses in which students create products, not just take tests.
More Antidotes to Me Too-ism • STEM education is equated with innovation. • Incorporate a creativity rubric into your project.
The creative scientist needs an artistic imagination. Max Planck 1918 Nobel Prize winner in Physics and accomplished pianist
TEAMS • Dr. Judith Ramaley • Advocates for the inclusion of the arts within STEM learning
Acronyms I Have Seen • STEM • TEAMS • STEAM • ArtSTEM • STEMArts • STEM-A • iSTEMarts • STREAM • STEAMIE • STEMx • STE[+a]M • oSTEM • STEMM • T-STEM • STEMIE • ST2REAM • CS-STEM • SEED (Social, Economic, and Environmental Design)
Joint Interim Task Force on STEM Access and Success (HB 4056) Report, 12/6/12 • The Task Force also recognizes the critical supporting role played by the arts in developing innovative technologies that capture the imagination of students and consumers alike.
Joint Interim Task Force on STEM Access and Success (HB 4056) Report, 12/6/12 • The Task Force advocates for the role of art education in developing competent STEM graduates.
Joint Interim Task Force on STEM Access and Success (HB 4056) Report, 12/6/12 • STEM is not just about academic learning; it’s about applying technical knowledge in a creative way to solve problems.
Joint Interim Task Force on STEM Access and Success (HB 4056) Report, 12/6/12 • The Task Force acknowledges the critical role played by the arts in developing a well-rounded and competitive STEM workforce.
Scientific Method Artistic Process Creative Process Engineering Design Process
Common Processes • Background • Observe • Identify a need or problem (Develop an idea) • Research • Propose a hypothesis/solution • Test/create/build • Evaluate and refine • Communicate
Leonardo da Vinci, 1452-1519 Self-portrait
Why STEAM? • Arts education is a key to creativity • Creativity is an essential component of, and spurs, innovation • Innovation is agreed to be necessary to create new industries in the future • New industries, with their jobs, are the basis of our future economic wellbeing
Without the arts, STEM is just a four-letter word. When Winston Churchill was asked to cut arts funding for the war effort, he asked: “Then what are we fighting for?”
We simply cannot compete in the new economy unless we do something now about creativity and innovation. Harvey White Co-founder of both Qualcomm Inc. and Leap Wireless International Inc., he coined the acronym STEAM
The MP3 player wasn't a new thing when the iPod came out, nor was the iPhone the first smart phone. But they were the ones that made you give a damn. John Maeda President of the Rhode Island School of Design