Washington anD the New republic - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

washington and the new republic n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Washington anD the New republic PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Washington anD the New republic

play fullscreen
1 / 75
Washington anD the New republic
184 Views
Download Presentation
napua
Download Presentation

Washington anD the New republic

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. President George Washington Born on February 22, 1732 in Westmoreland County, Virginia Washington anD theNew republic Chapter 10 Launching the New Ship of State 1789-1800 P. 189-209

  2. DVD • The Presidents: Washington to Monroe • George Washington • John Adams

  3. Federal Period 1789-1801 Adams’ one term Washington’s two terms

  4. Inauguration of George Washington 1789 New York City Because of the leadership skills he displayed during the war Washington was elected as the first American president.

  5. Washington Taking the Oath 1789 • Most admired man in eighteenth-century America • Even before the Constitution was • ratified, his name was widely • proposed for the presidency. • * "Of all men you are best fitted to • fill that office," wrote one friend. • Unanimously elected as the first • president of the United States • Route from Mount Vernon to New York • Greeted by cheering crowds, bands, • and parades • Barges, decorated in patriotic themes, • accompanied him as he crossed the • Hudson River • In this painting, the artist captures the enthusiasm and patriotism of the crowd that gathered to see the general take the oath of office.

  6. Late eighteenth century cartoon shows the enthusiasm many had for the new Constitution

  7. Washington’s Administration1789-1797 • George Washington • Unanimously drafted by the Electoral College • Commanded by strength of character • John Adams—vice-president • Pro-Federalist administration • Alexander Hamilton • Key figure in Washington’s administration • Secretary of Treasury • Established the financial future of the country • Turned the national debt into a blessing

  8. State of the Nation’s Economy • Tremendous debt in 1789 • $12 million owed to foreign countries • $50 million owed to American citizens for • Food • Arms and other • Resources used during the war • $22 million owed by states to the federal government • Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton • Proposed a plan to get the country on a sound economic footing

  9. Nation’s Debt 1789

  10. Hamilton’s Financial Plan • Objectives • Bolster the national credit • As much political as economic • Turn the debt into an asset • The more creditors to whom the government owed money • The more people would have a stake in the success of the union • Shifted the wealthy creditors loyalty from the states to the federal government • Sound financial footing • Results • Stimulated formation of political parties • Encouraged Industrial Revolution in America • Strengthened the federal government • The Plan • Tariff 1789 • Low tariff (8%) on imports • Protected and encouraged American industry • Compromise of 1790 • Assumption of all the debts from the Revolution • South got the capital in Virginia • Excise Tax 1791 • Tax on a few domestic items • Whiskey • Creation of the First Bank of the United States 1791

  11. Alexander Hamilton • Some Kind of Genius • One of the youngest and most • brilliant of the Founding Fathers • Secretary of the Treasury • Financial wizard • National debt was a blessing • * A kind of union adhesive

  12. Population • 1790 First census • 4 million people • Philadelphia 42,000 • New York City 33,000 • Boston 18,000 • Charleston 16,000 • Baltimore 13,000 • Ninety percent rural • Only five percent beyond the Appalachians • Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio • Vermont 14th state in 1791

  13. Population Increase 1790-1860 Nonwhite: Indians and slaves

  14. Westward Movement of Center of Population 1790-1990

  15. Mean Center of Population1790-2010 Center near Plato, Missouri

  16. Western Land Claims and Cessions • 1782-1802 • After the United States achieved independence • States competed with each • other for control of valuable • lands to which they had • possible claims under their • original charters. • Competition led to a series of • compromises among the states • or between individual states • and the new nation, which are • indicated on this map.

  17. Inventing a Capital CityCompromise of 1790 Hamilton Federalists Jefferson Democratic-Republicans • War debts • Northern states • Union assume the war debts • For the Bank • Necessary to solving economic problems • Capital city in Virginia • Tacit approval that slavery continues • War debts • Southern states • States assume the debts themselves • Against the Bank • No authorization in the Constitution • Capital city in Virginia • Helped to get the Bank through Congress

  18. First Political Parties

  19. Evolution of the Political Parties

  20. U.S. Capitol 1800 U.S. Capitol Without the dome Rises a top Jenkins Hill Watercolor by William Birch “No other nation perhaps had ever before the opportunity…of deliberately deciding where their Capital City should be fixed.” Pierre L’Enfant

  21. Federal City • Pierre L’Enfant’s Plan • Standard right angle street • grid • Intersected by broad • avenues arrayed in • diagonals • Rechristened Washington • after the first president’s • death • 200 years later • Plan can be seen in the inset • Mirrored checks and • balances in the Constitution • Slighted the Supreme Court • Neither a home nor • Connecting avenues • No building of its own • until 1935

  22. White House 1807 • Presidential Palace • Executive Mansion • White House • “I pray heaven to bestow the best of blessings on this house and on all who shall hereafter to inhabit it. May none but honest and wise men ever rule under this roof.” John Adams • First president to occupy the structure • Franklin Roosevelt • Had Adams’ quote • carved in the mantel of • the State Dining Room • 145 years later

  23. Slavery Compromises • Preservation of the Union at the expense of • Continuing the “peculiar institution” (slavery) • Three major compromises • Compromise of 1790 • South supports economic proposals of the Federalists • North agrees to allow the capital in the south • Missouri Compromise 1820 • Admits Missouri as a slave state • Admits Maine as a free state • Free territory north of the 36° 30̒ parallel in Louisiana Territory • Compromise of 1850 • Popular sovereignty • California free state • New Mexico and Utah territory open to slavery • Occurred in exact 30 year intervals Popular sovereignty

  24. The New Republic • First session of Congress • Developed the executive branch • Cabinet and federal agencies • Passed the Bill of Rights • Established the judicial branch as per Article III • Judiciary Act 1789 • Federal district courts (94) • (Judiciary Act 1891) • Circuit Courts of Appeal (11) • Created a national military • Assumed the debt and paid for it • Tariff 1789 • Excise Tax 1791 • Chartered the Bank of the United States 1791

  25. Bill of Rights 1791First Ten Amendments Speech, press, religion, assembly, redress grievances Right to bear arms No quartering troops No unreasonable searches and seizures Right to a grand jury, no double jeopardy, no self-incrimination, no loss of life, liberty or property without due process of law Speedy, public, impartial trial, defense counsel cross-examine Jury trial in civil court greater than $ 20 No excessive bail or cruel or unusual punishment Unlisted rights are not necessarily denied Powers not delegated to U.S. are reservedto the states and the people

  26. George Washington1789-1797 • Reluctant executive • Trained to be a surveyor • Military hero in French and Indian War • Commander-in-Chief of Continental Army • Heroic service in American Revolution • Made him one of the most celebrated people in the world • Presided over the Constitutional Convention 1787 • First president of the United States • Unanimously elected • Home was Mount Vernon • Washington’s Federalist Administration • Judiciary Act 1789 • Tariff 1789 • Main goal—revenue • Encourage American industry • Bill of Rights 1791 • First Bank of the United States 1791 • Excise Tax 1791 • Whiskey tax • Whiskey Rebellion 1794 • Farewell Address 1797

  27. Building a Cabinet • 1789 Congress established a Cabinet • Served as the president’s advisors • Responsible for running their department within the executive branch • Department of State • Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson • Department of War • Secretary of War Henry Knox • 1947 Department of Defense • Department of the Treasury • Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton • Department of Justice • Attorney General Edmund Randolph

  28. Evolution of the Cabinet • Four original cabinet departments • 1789 State • 1789 Treasury • 1789 War *1947 Defense (originally War 1789) • 1789 Justice • Attorney General • 1849 Interior • 1889 Agriculture • 1913 Commerce • 1913 Labor • 1953 Health Education and Welfare *1979 Health and Human Services (originally HEW 1953) *1979 Education (originally HEW 1953) • 1965 Housing and Urban Development (HUD) • 1966 Transportation • 1977 Energy • 1989 Veterans Affairs • 2002 Homeland Security The first cabinet left to right Henry Knox (War), Thomas Jefferson (State) Edmund Randolph (Attorney General) Alexander Hamilton (Treasury)

  29. First Cabinet The first cabinet left to right Henry Knox (War) Thomas Jefferson (State) Edmund Randolph (Attorney General) Alexander Hamilton (Treasury)

  30. Judiciary Act of 1789 • Organized Supreme Court • Chief Justice • John Jay—first Chief Justice • Five associate justices • Created the federal district court system • Created the office of the Attorney General

  31. Federal courts • Supreme Court • Considers @ 7,000 cases per year • Hears about 100 cases per year • 94 federal district courts • 600 judges • 300,000 cases/year • 500 cases/year for each judge • Judiciary Act 1891 • Created 11 Circuit Courts of Appeal • 168 judges • 25,000 cases per year

  32. U.S. District and Appellate Courts

  33. Federal Court System

  34. Bank of the United States 1791 • Capstone of Hamilton’s financial system • Asked Congress for a bank • Private institution • Government a major stockholder • Federal Treasury deposit surplus monies • Print paper money backed by the federal government • Located in Philadelphia • Chartered for 20 years • Explosive issue • Strongest opposition from the South First Bank of the United States Alexander Hamilton

  35. Battle for the Bank Hamilton Jefferson • Congress could create a bank • “Necessary and proper” clause • Coin money, • Regulate trade • Levy taxes • Broad/loose interpretation • States not Congress had power to charter banks • Constitution did not give Congress the authority to create a bank • Narrow/strict interpretation

  36. Whiskey Rebellion 1794 • Challenged federal authority • Settlers up and down the frontier refused to pay the federal government’s tax on whiskey • 500 men burned the house of a tax collector • Two weeks later 6,000 “Whiskey Rebels” met and threatened to seize Pittsburgh • Washington marched 12,000 federal troops to suppress the rebellion • Crushed the rebellion • Asserted power of the executive to enforce federal laws • Invigorated the federal government

  37. Tax collector scene from Whiskey Rebellion 1794 • Excise tax on whiskey • Farmers in western Pennsylvania rose up in protest • Using tactics straight out of the pre-Revolutionary War era, including tarring and feathering the • “Revenooer" assigned to collect the taxes • “Whiskey Rebels” challenged the federal government's authority • President Washington met this challenge by assembling an army of almost 12,000 met • the challenge to put down the Whiskey Rebellion.

  38. Lancaster Turnpike 1790s • Roads primitive • Improvements necessary for nation to grow • Philadelphia west to Lancaster • 62 miles • Private company built the road • Highly successful venture • 15% annual dividends to stockholders • Turnpike building boom • Lasted twenty years • Stimulated westward movement • Conestoga wagons • 1811 National/Cumberland Road

  39. Lancaster Turnpike 1790sCumberland Road 1811

  40. Nine World Wars

  41. French Revolution 1789Impact on America • 1792 France declared war on Austria • 1792 France proclaimed herself a republic • 1793 Beheaded King Louis XVI • Reign of Terror • Franco-American Alliance of 1778 still in effect • Many felt U.S. was bound to honor the alliance • Neutrality Proclamation 1793 • U.S. officially neutral • Washington wanted to avoid war at all costs • Warned citizens to be neutral • Beginning of the isolationist tradition • Alien and Sedition Acts 1798

  42. Problems with Britain 1783-1793 • Britain in defiance of Treaty of Paris • Retained northern frontier posts on U.S. soil • Did not want to give up the lucrative fur trade • Hoped to build Indian buffer state • Britain’s Royal Navy • Eager to starve out the French West Indies • Seized 300 American merchant ships • Impressed Americans into service on English ships • Jeffersonians demanded war against Britain • Federalists resisted

  43. Jay Treaty 1794 • U.S. and Britain • TERMS • British promised to evacuate posts on U.S. soil • British consented to pay damages for seizures of American ships • U.S. bound to pay debts owed British merchants from before the Revolution • Results • Southerners angriest/owed much to Britain • Pinckney Treaty 1795

  44. Pinckney Treaty 1795 • U.S. and Spain • Spain • Concerned at possibility of Anglo-American alliance • Struck a deal • TERMS • Granted U.S. • Free navigation of the Mississippi River • Large disputed territory north of Florida

  45. Territorial ClaimsUnited States and Spain 1783-1796 The two nations' claims to lands east of the Mississippi and north of the thirty-first parallel were a principal point of contention until the Treaty of San Lorenzo 1796

  46. Cession of Tribal Lands • 1775-1790 • Land claims of the • United States meant little as • long as Indian nations still • controlled vast territories • within the new country's • formal boundaries • Treaties in the 1780s • and 1790s opened • some lands to white settlement.

  47. Washington’s Farewell Address 1796 • Never delivered • Only printed in newspapers • Advised against “permanent alliances” • Favored temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies • Encouraged commercial relations • Keep the U.S. neutral for a generation or so to build up the population and military • Strategy of delay • Warned against factions (political parties) • Make constitutional government succeed • Expand and grow

  48. Indian Land Cessions • 1768-1799 • Native Americans were forced to give up extensive homelands throughout the eastern backcountry and farther west in the Ohio and Tennessee River valleys.

  49. First Lady Martha Washington