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President George Washington Born on February 22, 1732 in Westmoreland County, Virginia . Washington anD the New republic. Chapter 10 Launching the New Ship of State 1789-1800 P. 189-209. DVD. The Presidents: Washington to Monroe George Washington John Adams. Federal Period 1789-1801.

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washington and the new republic

President George Washington

Born on February 22, 1732 in Westmoreland County, Virginia

Washington anD theNew republic

Chapter 10 Launching the New Ship of State 1789-1800

P. 189-209

slide2
DVD
  • The Presidents: Washington to Monroe
    • George Washington
    • John Adams
federal period 1789 1801
Federal Period 1789-1801

Adams’ one term

Washington’s two terms

slide4

Inauguration of George Washington 1789

New York City

Because of the leadership skills he displayed during the war Washington was elected as the first American president.

slide5

Washington Taking the Oath 1789

  • Most admired man in eighteenth-century America
  • Even before the Constitution was
  • ratified, his name was widely
  • proposed for the presidency.
  • * "Of all men you are best fitted to
  • fill that office," wrote one friend.
  • Unanimously elected as the first
  • president of the United States
  • Route from Mount Vernon to New York
  • Greeted by cheering crowds, bands,
  • and parades
  • Barges, decorated in patriotic themes,
  • accompanied him as he crossed the
  • Hudson River
  • In this painting, the artist captures the enthusiasm and patriotism of the crowd that gathered to see the general take the oath of office.
washington s administration 1789 1797
Washington’s Administration1789-1797
  • George Washington
    • Unanimously drafted by the Electoral College
    • Commanded by strength of character
  • John Adams—vice-president
  • Pro-Federalist administration
  • Alexander Hamilton
    • Key figure in Washington’s administration
      • Secretary of Treasury
    • Established the financial future of the country
    • Turned the national debt into a blessing
state of the nation s economy
State of the Nation’s Economy
  • Tremendous debt in 1789
    • $12 million owed to foreign countries
    • $50 million owed to American citizens for
      • Food
      • Arms and other
      • Resources used during the war
    • $22 million owed by states to the federal government
  • Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton
    • Proposed a plan to get the country on a sound economic footing
hamilton s financial plan
Hamilton’s Financial Plan
  • Objectives
    • Bolster the national credit
      • As much political as economic
      • Turn the debt into an asset
        • The more creditors to whom the government owed money
        • The more people would have a stake in the success of the union
        • Shifted the wealthy creditors loyalty from the states to the federal government
    • Sound financial footing
  • Results
    • Stimulated formation of political parties
    • Encouraged Industrial Revolution in America
    • Strengthened the federal government
  • The Plan
    • Tariff 1789
      • Low tariff (8%) on imports
      • Protected and encouraged American industry
    • Compromise of 1790
      • Assumption of all the debts from the Revolution
      • South got the capital in Virginia
    • Excise Tax 1791
      • Tax on a few domestic items
        • Whiskey
    • Creation of the First Bank of the United States 1791
alexander hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
  • Some Kind of Genius
  • One of the youngest and most
  • brilliant of the Founding Fathers
  • Secretary of the Treasury
  • Financial wizard
  • National debt was a blessing
  • * A kind of union adhesive
population
Population
  • 1790 First census
    • 4 million people
    • Philadelphia 42,000
    • New York City 33,000
    • Boston 18,000
    • Charleston 16,000
    • Baltimore 13,000
  • Ninety percent rural
  • Only five percent beyond the Appalachians
    • Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio
  • Vermont 14th state in 1791
population increase 1790 1860
Population Increase 1790-1860

Nonwhite: Indians and slaves

mean center of population 1790 2010
Mean Center of Population1790-2010

Center near Plato, Missouri

slide16

Western Land Claims and Cessions

  • 1782-1802
  • After the United States achieved independence
  • States competed with each
  • other for control of valuable
  • lands to which they had
  • possible claims under their
  • original charters.
  • Competition led to a series of
  • compromises among the states
  • or between individual states
  • and the new nation, which are
  • indicated on this map.
inventing a capital city compromise of 1790
Inventing a Capital CityCompromise of 1790

Hamilton

Federalists

Jefferson

Democratic-Republicans

  • War debts
    • Northern states
      • Union assume the war debts
  • For the Bank
    • Necessary to solving economic problems
  • Capital city in Virginia
    • Tacit approval that slavery continues
  • War debts
    • Southern states
      • States assume the debts themselves
  • Against the Bank
  • No authorization in the Constitution
  • Capital city in Virginia
    • Helped to get the Bank through Congress
u s capitol 1800
U.S. Capitol 1800

U.S. Capitol

Without the dome

Rises a top Jenkins Hill

Watercolor by William Birch

“No other nation perhaps had ever before the opportunity…of deliberately deciding where their Capital City should be fixed.” Pierre L’Enfant

federal city
Federal City
  • Pierre L’Enfant’s Plan
  • Standard right angle street
  • grid
  • Intersected by broad
  • avenues arrayed in
  • diagonals
  • Rechristened Washington
  • after the first president’s
  • death
  • 200 years later
  • Plan can be seen in the inset
  • Mirrored checks and
  • balances in the Constitution
  • Slighted the Supreme Court
    • Neither a home nor
    • Connecting avenues
    • No building of its own
    • until 1935
white house 1807
White House 1807
  • Presidential Palace
  • Executive Mansion
  • White House
  • “I pray heaven to bestow the best of blessings on this house and on all who shall hereafter to inhabit it. May none but honest and wise men ever rule under this roof.” John Adams
  • First president to occupy the structure
  • Franklin Roosevelt
    • Had Adams’ quote
    • carved in the mantel of
    • the State Dining Room
    • 145 years later
slavery compromises
Slavery Compromises
  • Preservation of the Union at the expense of
  • Continuing the “peculiar institution” (slavery)
  • Three major compromises
    • Compromise of 1790
      • South supports economic proposals of the Federalists
      • North agrees to allow the capital in the south
    • Missouri Compromise 1820
      • Admits Missouri as a slave state
      • Admits Maine as a free state
      • Free territory north of the 36° 30̒ parallel in Louisiana Territory
    • Compromise of 1850
      • Popular sovereignty
      • California free state
      • New Mexico and Utah territory open to slavery
    • Occurred in exact 30 year intervals

Popular sovereignty

the new republic
The New Republic
  • First session of Congress
    • Developed the executive branch
      • Cabinet and federal agencies
    • Passed the Bill of Rights
    • Established the judicial branch as per Article III
      • Judiciary Act 1789
        • Federal district courts (94)
      • (Judiciary Act 1891)
        • Circuit Courts of Appeal (11)
    • Created a national military
    • Assumed the debt and paid for it
      • Tariff 1789
      • Excise Tax 1791
    • Chartered the Bank of the United States 1791
bill of rights 1791 first ten amendments
Bill of Rights 1791First Ten Amendments

Speech, press, religion, assembly, redress grievances

Right to bear arms

No quartering troops

No unreasonable searches and seizures

Right to a grand jury,

no double jeopardy,

no self-incrimination, no loss of life, liberty or property without due process of law

Speedy, public, impartial trial, defense counsel cross-examine

Jury trial in civil court greater than $ 20

No excessive bail or cruel or unusual punishment

Unlisted rights are not necessarily denied

Powers not delegated to U.S. are reservedto the states and the people

george washington 1789 1797
George Washington1789-1797
  • Reluctant executive
  • Trained to be a surveyor
  • Military hero in French and Indian War
  • Commander-in-Chief of Continental Army
  • Heroic service in American Revolution
  • Made him one of the most celebrated people in the world
  • Presided over the Constitutional Convention 1787
  • First president of the United States
    • Unanimously elected
  • Home was Mount Vernon
  • Washington’s Federalist Administration
    • Judiciary Act 1789
    • Tariff 1789
      • Main goal—revenue
      • Encourage American industry
    • Bill of Rights 1791
    • First Bank of the United States 1791
    • Excise Tax 1791
      • Whiskey tax
    • Whiskey Rebellion 1794
    • Farewell Address 1797
building a cabinet
Building a Cabinet
  • 1789 Congress established a Cabinet
    • Served as the president’s advisors
    • Responsible for running their department within the executive branch
    • Department of State
      • Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson
    • Department of War
      • Secretary of War Henry Knox
      • 1947 Department of Defense
    • Department of the Treasury
      • Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton
    • Department of Justice
      • Attorney General Edmund Randolph
evolution of the cabinet
Evolution of the Cabinet
  • Four original cabinet departments
  • 1789 State
  • 1789 Treasury
  • 1789 War

*1947 Defense (originally War 1789)

  • 1789 Justice
    • Attorney General
  • 1849 Interior
  • 1889 Agriculture
  • 1913 Commerce
  • 1913 Labor
  • 1953 Health Education and Welfare

*1979 Health and Human Services (originally HEW 1953)

*1979 Education (originally HEW 1953)

  • 1965 Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
  • 1966 Transportation
  • 1977 Energy
  • 1989 Veterans Affairs
  • 2002 Homeland Security

The first cabinet left to right

Henry Knox (War), Thomas Jefferson (State) Edmund Randolph (Attorney General)

Alexander Hamilton (Treasury)

first cabinet
First Cabinet

The first cabinet left to right

Henry Knox (War)

Thomas Jefferson (State) Edmund Randolph (Attorney General)

Alexander Hamilton (Treasury)

judiciary act of 1789
Judiciary Act of 1789
  • Organized Supreme Court
    • Chief Justice
      • John Jay—first Chief Justice
    • Five associate justices
  • Created the federal district court system
  • Created the office of the Attorney General
federal courts
Federal courts
  • Supreme Court
    • Considers @ 7,000 cases per year
    • Hears about 100 cases per year
  • 94 federal district courts
    • 600 judges
    • 300,000 cases/year
    • 500 cases/year for each judge
  • Judiciary Act 1891
    • Created 11 Circuit Courts of Appeal
    • 168 judges
    • 25,000 cases per year
bank of the united states 1791
Bank of the United States 1791
  • Capstone of Hamilton’s financial system
  • Asked Congress for a bank
    • Private institution
    • Government a major stockholder
    • Federal Treasury deposit surplus monies
    • Print paper money backed by the federal government
    • Located in Philadelphia
    • Chartered for 20 years
  • Explosive issue
    • Strongest opposition from the South

First Bank of the United States

Alexander Hamilton

battle for the bank
Battle for the Bank

Hamilton

Jefferson

  • Congress could create a bank
    • “Necessary and proper” clause
      • Coin money,
      • Regulate trade
      • Levy taxes
  • Broad/loose interpretation
  • States not Congress had power to charter banks
  • Constitution did not give Congress the authority to create a bank
  • Narrow/strict interpretation
whiskey rebellion 1794
Whiskey Rebellion 1794
  • Challenged federal authority
    • Settlers up and down the frontier refused to pay the federal government’s tax on whiskey
      • 500 men burned the house of a tax collector
    • Two weeks later 6,000 “Whiskey Rebels” met and threatened to seize Pittsburgh
  • Washington marched 12,000 federal troops to suppress the rebellion
  • Crushed the rebellion
  • Asserted power of the executive to enforce federal laws
  • Invigorated the federal government
slide38

Tax collector scene from Whiskey Rebellion 1794

  • Excise tax on whiskey
  • Farmers in western Pennsylvania rose up in protest
  • Using tactics straight out of the pre-Revolutionary War era, including tarring and feathering the
  • “Revenooer" assigned to collect the taxes
  • “Whiskey Rebels” challenged the federal government's authority
  • President Washington met this challenge by assembling an army of almost 12,000 met
  • the challenge to put down the Whiskey Rebellion.
lancaster turnpike 1790s
Lancaster Turnpike 1790s
  • Roads primitive
    • Improvements necessary for nation to grow
  • Philadelphia west to Lancaster
    • 62 miles
  • Private company built the road
    • Highly successful venture
      • 15% annual dividends to stockholders
      • Turnpike building boom
        • Lasted twenty years
  • Stimulated westward movement
    • Conestoga wagons
      • 1811 National/Cumberland Road
french revolution 1789 impact on america
French Revolution 1789Impact on America
  • 1792 France declared war on Austria
  • 1792 France proclaimed herself a republic
  • 1793 Beheaded King Louis XVI
    • Reign of Terror
  • Franco-American Alliance of 1778 still in effect
    • Many felt U.S. was bound to honor the alliance
  • Neutrality Proclamation 1793
    • U.S. officially neutral
      • Washington wanted to avoid war at all costs
    • Warned citizens to be neutral
  • Beginning of the isolationist tradition
  • Alien and Sedition Acts 1798
problems with britain 1783 1793
Problems with Britain 1783-1793
  • Britain in defiance of Treaty of Paris
    • Retained northern frontier posts on U.S. soil
    • Did not want to give up the lucrative fur trade
    • Hoped to build Indian buffer state
  • Britain’s Royal Navy
    • Eager to starve out the French West Indies
    • Seized 300 American merchant ships
    • Impressed Americans into service on English ships
  • Jeffersonians demanded war against Britain
    • Federalists resisted
jay treaty 1794
Jay Treaty 1794
  • U.S. and Britain
  • TERMS
    • British promised to evacuate posts on U.S. soil
    • British consented to pay damages for seizures of American ships
    • U.S. bound to pay debts owed British merchants from before the Revolution
  • Results
  • Southerners angriest/owed much to Britain
  • Pinckney Treaty 1795
pinckney treaty 1795
Pinckney Treaty 1795
  • U.S. and Spain
  • Spain
    • Concerned at possibility of Anglo-American alliance
    • Struck a deal
  • TERMS
    • Granted U.S.
      • Free navigation of the Mississippi River
      • Large disputed territory north of Florida
territorial claims united states and spain 1783 1796
Territorial ClaimsUnited States and Spain 1783-1796

The two nations' claims to lands east of the Mississippi and north of the thirty-first parallel were a principal point of contention until the

Treaty of San Lorenzo 1796

slide47

Cession of Tribal Lands

  • 1775-1790
  • Land claims of the
  • United States meant little as
  • long as Indian nations still
  • controlled vast territories
  • within the new country's
  • formal boundaries
  • Treaties in the 1780s
  • and 1790s opened
  • some lands to white settlement.
washington s farewell address 1796
Washington’s Farewell Address 1796
  • Never delivered
  • Only printed in newspapers
  • Advised against “permanent alliances”
    • Favored temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies
    • Encouraged commercial relations
    • Keep the U.S. neutral for a generation or so to build up the population and military
    • Strategy of delay
  • Warned against factions (political parties)
  • Make constitutional government succeed
  • Expand and grow
slide49

Indian Land Cessions

  • 1768-1799
  • Native Americans were forced to give up extensive homelands throughout the eastern backcountry and farther west in the Ohio and Tennessee River valleys.
slide51

“If freedom of speech is taken away then dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter.”

George Washington

george washington
George Washington
  • Washington precedents
  • First
    • Inaugural speech
    • Veto
    • State of the Union
  • Address
  • Washington retired after
  • two terms
  • Believed it his patriotic
  • duty to uphold the
  • Constitution
  • *Pass on his role as the
  • nation's top public
  • servant to someone else
slide53

Mount Vernon

George Washington retired to his home on Mount Vernon.

slide54

Washington Monument

1884 the Washington Monument was completed on the National Mall.

election 1796
Election 1796
  • John Adams
    • Federalist
  • Thomas Jefferson
    • Democratic-Republican
  • Very close election
    • Constitution
      • Electoral College
        • Man with the second highest number of votes in the became Vice President
      • Thomas Jefferson (D-R) was John Adams’ V.P.
        • Bitter rivals
  • Victory kept a Federalist in office
slide58

John Adams

  • By Gilbert Stuart
  • Died on the Fourth of July 1826
    • Same day Thomas Jefferson
john adams 1797 18011
John Adams 1797-1801
  • Boston lawyer
    • Defended British troops in Massacre case
  • Signer of Declaration of Independence
  • Member Continental Congress
  • Minister to France and Britain
  • First vice-president
  • Most unsuited to the presidency
    • Miserable presidency
    • Yet most deserving
  • Enormously talented and ambitious
  • Created Navy Department
  • Two issues defined his presidency
    • XYZ Affair 1798
    • Alien and Sedition Acts 1798
troubles with france 1798 1800
Troubles with France 1798-1800
  • French
    • Confiscated American merchant ships at sea
    • Attempted to stop the U.S. from trading with her enemy Great Britain
    • Impressments
      • Forcing sailors to serve in a foreign navy against their will
    • Confiscation of a ship’s cargo
  • Adams
    • Sent a delegation to Paris to try to negotiate with the French
    • When they arrived they were asked for a bribe
      • $250,000
      • XYZ Affair
the xyz affair 1798
The XYZ Affair 1798
  • French diplomats, X,Y,Z demanded
    • American delegation
    • Pay a bribe of $250,000
    • Arrange for the U.S. to loan France $12 million dollars
    • Instruct President Adams to publically apologize for the unpleasant remarks he made about France
  • American delegation outraged
  • American press and many called for war against France
quasi war with france 1798 1800
Quasi-War with France 1798-1800
  • Americans refused to pay the bribe
    • French began to seize more of our ships
  • Naval hostilities
    • Adams will call for a Navy Department
  • Quasi-War
    • Adams never asked Congress to declare war
  • Increase in American unity
    • People expressed patriotism
    • Support for our sailors against the French
navy department 1798
Navy Department 1798
  • John Adams created the
    • Department of the Navy 1798
      • U. S. Marine Corps 1775
        • Founded Continental Marines
        • To support the war for independence
  • Problems with the French
    • Menacing American shipping
  • To defend the U.S.
alien and sedition acts 1798
Alien and Sedition Acts 1798
  • To increase Federalist support and
  • Decrease the size of the Democratic Republicans
  • Four laws collectively called Alien and Sedition Acts
    • Naturalization Act
      • Increased citizenship requirements from 5-14 years
      • New immigrants were joining Demo-Republicans
    • Alien Enemies Act
      • In war time citizens of an enemy nation could be deported
    • Alien Act
      • Gave the President the power to deport any citizen that he judged dangerous to the country
    • Sedition Act
      • Made it illegal for any person to write, print, utter or publish anything against the President or Congress
congressional pugilists 1798
Congressional Pugilists, 1798

A cartoonist satirizes the fiercely partisan debates in Congress surrounding the Alien and Sedition Acts.

results of alien and sedition acts
Results of Alien and Sedition Acts
  • Laws were very unpopular
  • Considered a violation of the First Amendment
  • Turned public opinion against
    • President Adams
    • Federalist Party
  • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions 1798
    • Compact theory
    • Theory of Nullification
    • States’ rights
    • Written by Jefferson and Madison
  • Seriously affected Adams’ legacy as president
states rights
States’ Rights
  • Compact theory
    • Thirteen sovereign states created a compact, thus
    • Federal government, a creation of the states, thus
    • Individual states were final judge
    • Extreme states’ rights view regarding union
  • Theory of Nullification
    • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions 1798
      • Alien and Sedition Acts are a violation of the Constitution
    • States have the authority to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional
      • Null, void and of no effect
federalist response
Federalist Response
  • Condemned Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
  • Dangerous to the idea of union
  • Contract Theory
    • People created the union, not the states
  • Only the Supreme Court may declare an act of Congress unconstitutional
john adams legacy
John Adams Legacy
  • Avoided war with France
    • Showed strength
  • Created Navy Department and Marine Corps 1798
    • Showed vision
  • Alien and Sedition Acts 1798
    • Worst decision of his administration
  • Judiciary Act 1801
    • Over 60 new federal judgeships
      • “midnight judges”
    • Federalist party survived in the courts
slide72

Abigail Adams

In 1764 John Adams married Abigail Smith. Throughout his political career, Adams was steadfastly supported (and sometimes challenged) by Abigail.

john adams
John Adams

Son of a farmer

Descendant of Plymouth Rock pilgrims

Born in Braintree, Massachusetts