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The New Republic. Study Guide Identification’s. Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Rush Thomas Jefferson 1790 Immigration Act Buffalo Party Treaty of Greenville Tenskwatawa Tecumseh. Northwest Ordinance Treaty of Fort Stanwix Elitists Democrats Shays Rebellion Annapolis Convention

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study guide identification s
Study Guide Identification’s
  • Benjamin Franklin
  • Benjamin Rush
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • 1790 Immigration Act
  • Buffalo Party
  • Treaty of Greenville
  • Tenskwatawa
  • Tecumseh

Northwest Ordinance

Treaty of Fort Stanwix



Shays Rebellion

Annapolis Convention

Articles of Confederation

Federal Convention



study guide focus questions
Study Guide Focus Questions
  • What considerations did founding fathers debate when deciding how to structure the new government?
  • What events led leadership to reconsider the Articles of Confederation and devise the Constitution?
  • What political factions arose out of this debate and whose interests did they serve?
post war
Post War

Crisis of Demobilizing the continental army

1778 Congress promised officers life pensions at half pay in exchange for enlistment

1783 Congress made no provisions

Officers fearful they would lose their pensions,

pressured congress, petitioned demanding that pensions be converted to a bonus equal to five years of full pay, or 10 at half.

Congress rejected the petition

the letter
The Letter

General Horatio Gates, backed by congressional nationalists circulated a letter arguing for direct military intervention & calling an extraordinary meeting of the officer corps at Newburgh

Washington ignored the meeting, at his own he addressed those assembled condemning the letter but convinced congress to convert the pensions into bonuses

Averting a military coup

Common men were provided 3 months pay as a bonus and discharged at Washington’s instructions

westward expansion
Westward Expansion

1784 congress extended national authority over the west

Thomas Jefferson drafted legislation

Population 20,000 in a territory could call a constitutional convention and government

When the population reached the population of the smallest of the original 13 colonies, they could petition for statehood

Congress accepted those proposals but rejected a vote of 7 to 6 Jefferson’s clause forever prohibiting slavery in the west

land ordinance 1785
Land Ordinance 1785

Provided for the survey and sale of western lands

Ordered system of survey, divided land into townships composed 640 acres

To establish a revenue base for government congress provided for the auction of public land for no less than a dollar per acre

treaties of fort stanwix 1784 fort mcintosh 1785
Treaties of Fort Stanwix (1784) & Fort McIntosh (1785)

Congressional commissioners forced Iroquois & other Ohio Tribes to cede portions of their territory


seized hostages

forcing compliance

northwest ordinance 1787
Northwest Ordinance 1787

Congress established a system of government for the territory north of Ohio

3-5 states to be created, slavery prohibited

local identity
Local Identity

National government distant

Social & political identity located in local communities & states rather than the American nation

New Democratic ideology

1774-1775 political mobilization broadened participation

Mass meetings

Greater numbers voted

Democratic positiontaken by farmers, artisans & ordinary people and challenged colonial Tory position of the purpose of government

who would rule america
Who would Rule America?

Elitists or conservatives– later the Federalists

Constituency: Wealthier, better educated

Residents of Urban areas, commercially oriented towns, agricultural districts

Franchise limited to property holders/wealthy elite

Maintain power and wealth of the elite

Democrats or Radicals– later the Democratic Republicans or Anti-Federalists

Constituency: Small farmers who predominated in America

Believed common man capable of self-government

The essential task of government was to preserve the liberties of the people from greed and corruption of those who wielded power

1776 77 state constitutions
1776-77 State Constitutions

1776 Constitutional Convention

check the power of government to ensure liberty & safeguard against Tyranny

Weakened executive authority

Increased power of legislature

bill of rights to limit interference in citizens lives

state constitutions
State Constitutions

First post-revolution debates focused on an appropriate governmental structure for the new states

Democrats believed the ideal form of government

community or town meeting,

people set their own tax rates,


schools & churches

regulated the local economy

State government only needed for coordination among communities

conservative whig position
Conservative/Whig position

Need for balanced government

The “unthinking many” should be checked by strong executive and an upper house

Insulated from popular control by property qualifications and long terms in office

Greatest danger was majority tyranny, which might lead to violation of property rights and “dictatorship”

virginia state constitution
Virginia State Constitution

“Declaration of Rights” 1776

Written by wealthy planter, democrat & political philosopher George Mason

“All men are by nature equally free and independent, and have certain inherent rights, namely, the enjoyment of life and liberty, with the means of acquiring and possessing property and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety.”

Sovereignty resided in the people, the government was a servant of the people and the people had a right to reform, alter or abolish that government

Guarantees of due process, trial by jury in criminal prosecutions,

Prohibitions against excessive bail & “cruel and unusual punishment”

People assured of the free exercise of religion, according to the dictates of conscience

Freedom of the press guaranteed as “one of the great bulwarks of liberty”

new jersey
New Jersey

1776 granted all inhabitants of full age, who resided there 12 months minimum & worth 50 pounds the right to vote

Enfranchised single women who voted en massed and who were outspoken on political issues

After males protests, the legislature passed new law limiting the right to vote to free white male citizens (1807)

articles of confederation
Articles of Confederation

Drafted in 1777 by the Continental Congress

Established a “firm league of Friendship” between and among the 13 states

Reflected wariness by the states of a strong central government

Vested the largest share of power in individual states

Denied Congress the power to collect taxes, regulate interstate commerce and enforce laws.

1776 1780
1776 - 1780

13 states plus Vermont adopted constitutions

Shaped by the debate between radicals, conservatives, democrats & Whigs

Pennsylvania adopted the most radically democratic constitutions

assembly would be elected annually by all free male taxpayers

North Carolina, Georgia, Vermont followed this model

Vermont adopted universal male suffrage

South Carolina & Maryland created conservative institutions designed to maintain disparity between classes

crisis of the 1780s
Crisis of the 1780s

Depression that produced political protests,

Shay’s Rebellion generated a strong nationalist sentiment among elite circles

August 29, 1786

Revolutionary veteran, Daniel Shay led an armed rebellion against the harsh taxes placed upon farmers in which the arsenal at Springfield, Mass. Was threatened.

significance: elite wanted a re-evaluation of the Articles of Confederation, to create a government that could effectively manage peoples rebellions

annapolis convention 1786
Annapolis Convention, 1786
  • Hamilton called the meeting in Maryland for representatives of all 13 states
    • 12 Delegates, 5 States
  • Powerful political movement dedicated to strengthening national government
    • Annapolis Convention 1786
      • passed a resolution requesting that the Confederation Congress call on all state to send delegates to a national convention to revise the articles of confederation
federal convention philadelphia 1787
Federal ConventionPhiladelphia 1787

Centralization in favor of merchants, bankers, planters & conservatives

How much power to allow the central government

How many representatives in congress to allow each state

How the representatives should be elected

Directly or by state legislatures

the federalist papers
The Federalist Papers

Written between 1787-88 by nationalists

85 articles arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution

Primary source for the interpretation of the constitution

Outline the philosophy and motivation for the proposed system of government

Most people believed the constitution granted too much power to the central government, weakening the autonomy of local communities and states

federalist papers
Federalist Papers

Federalist No. 10

Advocates for a large, strong republic to guard against “factions," groups of citizens with interests contrary to the rights of others or the interests of the whole community.

Federalist No. 84 – opposition to Bill of Rights

Anti-Federalist Papers

Collection of articles written in opposition to the ratification of the 1787 Constitution of the United States – in favor of Bill of rights

bill of rights 1791 legacy of anti federalists
Bill of Rights 1791Legacy of Anti-federalists

Freedom of religion

Freedom of assembly

Freedom of Speech

Freedom of the press

Right of Petition

Right to bear Arms

Restrain government from unreasonable searches or seizures

Guaranteed traditional legal rights under common law

Prohibition of double jeopardy

Right not to be compelled to testify against oneself

Due process of law before life, liberty, or property could be taken

Unremunerated rights of people protects

Powers not delegated to federal government were reserved for the states

the constitution 1787
The Constitution, 1787


Laid the foundation for the democratization and expansion of the Republic


Undermines democratic principles of the Declaration of Independence in order to safeguard the interests of the wealthy

the united states
The United States

George Washington – 1789

New Government: planters, merchants, financiers

Organized Americas export based on foreign trade

Composition of American Population

9 0f 10 Americans lived on farms

Non Citizens

Lived under patriarchal government of men

1/5 of Americans were African American

post revolution white men
Post Revolution White Men

60-85% White men owned land = Political access

25% other

Unskilled laborers and mariners

Working poor – indentured servants

Walking poor – vagrants & transients

Jailed, confined to work houses, auctioned out for labor

women post revolution
Women Post Revolution

Limited gains in exchange for war time participation

Slightly less restrictive divorce laws

Greater access to educational & business opportunities

Perception of women’s moral status rose

1787: Benjamin Rush Thoughts Upon Female Education

Birth of Republican Motherhood

Common law: women surrendered all property rights at marriage

Economically and politically subordinate to men – full control over women and children’s lies

Some protest – most women socialized to accept position

african americans
African Americans

Thousands of black fighters and their families left America and resettled

Samuel Johnson in 1775 asked “How is it that we hear the loudest yelps for liberty among the drivers of Negroes?”

30,000 fled Virginia alone

West Indies


Liberia, Africa

africans in the south
Africans in the South

Growth of Free black communities

Shift in religious and intellectual climate

Principles of liberty and equality & evangelical notions of human fellowship

Weakening of tobacco farming in the Chesapeake colonies

Freedom gained

200,000 free by the end of the 1700s

Military service

Fleeing north

africans in the north
Africans in the North

Gradual Emancipation Program in the North

1777-1784 northern states ended slavery

Vermont 1777, Mass. 1780, N Hampshire 1784, Penn, CT, RI.

Children of slaves would be freed at Birth

1810 30,000 remained enslaved in the North

Due to racism and Prejudice

Discrimination in housing, jobs, political system and education

Churches & self-help organizations formed

african american intellectuals
African American Intellectuals

Benjamin Banneker

born free in MD most accomplished mathematician & Astronomer of his time

Jupiter Hammon

NY Slave, took up contemporary issues in poems and issues

“Address to the Negroes of the State of New York” 1787

Phyllis Wheatley

Boston Slave, “Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral”

In every human breast God has implanted a principle, which we call love of freedom; it is impatient of oppression, and pants for deliverance. The Same Principle lives in us

Written to Mohegan Indian Minister Samuel Occom in 1774

who would be included
Who would be included?
  • Benjamin Rush & Diseases of the Mind
    • Father of Psychiatry
    • Established first asylums
    • Intellectual
    • “slave holder & white nationalist
  • Benjamin Franklin
    • The “Lovely White”
  • Thomas Jefferson
    • Repatriation
lovely white
“Lovely White”
  • Benjamin Franklin argued in Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind that the number of purely white people in the world was very small and he wished there were more of them.
    • “And while we are…scouring our planet, by clearing America of woods, and so making this side of our globe reflect a brighter light to the eues of inhabitants in mars or venus, why should we in the sight of superior beings, darken its people? Why increase the sons of Africa, by planting them in America, where we have so fair an opportunity, by excluding all Blacks and Tawneys, of increasing the lovely white…?
jefferson s homogenous white society
Jefferson’s Homogenous White Society
  • Member of the House of Burgesses
    • supported an effort for the emancipation of slaves and in Notes on the State of Virginian
      • recommended the gradual abolition of slavery and the elimination of “principles inconsistent with republicanism”
  • During the 1780s after the enactment of the Virginia Manumission law, 10,000 people gained their freedom,
    • his 200 slaves were not among them .
    • He viewed women as breeders and children as profit, and would only in theory be willing to make the sacrifice of freeing all his slaves if they would be removed from the United States.
  • 25 years, during which the population would double
    • 600 million dollars
    • cost of removal would be 300 million.
      • He argued for the deportation of future generations.
      • Black infants would be taken from their mothers, trained in industrious occupations until they reached an appropriate age for deportation.
        • This would reduce the loss of revenue from 37.5 million because infants were only worth 25.50$.
          • The old stock would eventually die off until no blacks remained in America
  • Jefferson recommended Sierra Leone and the west Indies for relocation
1790 congressional debate
1790 Congressional debate
  • affirmed its commitment to the “pure principles of Republicanism and its determination to develop a citizenry of good and useful men, a homogenous society.”
  • Only the worthy part of mankind should be encouraged to settle in the new republic and be eligible for citizenship.
1790 naturalization immigration act
1790 Naturalization & Immigration Act
  • Congress in 1790 restricted naturalization to “White Persons”
    • This racial prerequisite to citizenship endured until 1952
    • From 1907 – 1920 one million people gained citizenship under the racially restrictive naturalization laws, many more were rejected.
  • The courts established by law what determined a petitioners race:
    • Skin color, facial features, national origin, language, culture, ancestry, speculations of scientists, popular opinion or some combination of these factors?
pre requisite cases
Pre-requisite cases
  • The courts offered many different rationales to justify the various racial divisions they advanced
  • Common knowledge
    • Appealed to popular, widely held conceptions of races and racial divisions
    • Justified the assignment of petitioners to one race or another by reference to common beliefs about race
  • “Scientific evidence”
    • Supposedly objective, technical and specialized knowledge
    • Justified racial divisions by reference to the naturalistic studies of humankind
      • Informed by, interpreted by, based on reasoning or logic of common knowledge
      • Webster’s definition of race
women immigration and race
Women, Immigration and Race
  • Issue of women and citizenship
    • eligibility for naturalization depended on women marital status
    • congress in 1855, declared that a foreign woman automatically acquired citizenship upon marriage to a US citizen or upon the naturalization of her alien husband
      • 1895 treatise on naturalization “a woman partakes of her husbands nationality; her nationality is merged in that of her husband, her political status follows that of her husband”
    • 1868 only white women could gain citizenship by marrying a citizen
      • 1922 naturalization of women upon her marriage to a citizen or upon the naturalization of her husband ended
women s citizenship restrictions of race
Women’s citizenship, restrictions of race
  • Citizenship of American born women affected by gender-racial restrictions
    • many courts stripped women of citizenship if they married non citizens
    • 1907 American woman’s marriage to an alien terminated her citizenship
  • 1922 congress partially appealed this act
    • Continued to expatriate any woman who married a foreigner racially barred from citizenship – “any woman citizen who marries an alien ineligible to citizenship shall cease to be a citizen”
    • Marriage to a non white alien by an American woman was skin to treason against the country
      • While a traitor lost his citizenship after trial, a woman lost it automatically
    • Repealed in 1931
maintaining the lovely white
Maintaining the “lovely white”
  • The laws governing the racial composition of this country’s citizenry came bound up with and exacerbated by sexism
  • Women were doubly bound by racial laws, restricted as individuals, and less than because they were wives (femme coverture)
little turtle s war1790
Little Turtle’s War1790

Military confederacy of Shawnee, Delaware & others under Miami war chief Little Turtle

Successfully launched against General Josiah Harmar in 1790 and then against another American force in 1791 killing 900 Americans

whiskey rebellion
Whiskey Rebellion

Congress places a tax on distillation of whiskey for increased revenue

Many farm families produced from surplus corn

Farmers protested “internal taxes upon consumption are dangerous to the civil rights of freemen, and must in the end destroy the liberties of every country in which they are introduced”

13,000 federal army troops ordered to occupy Mingo Creek, Western Pennsylvania

american indian policy 1780 1820
American Indian Policy1780 -1820

Centralized control of Indian policy

State and local officials challenged the right of congress to administer Indian policy on a national level, often arguing that national politicians were too soft on former enemies of the united states.

Buffalo Party

Policy of extermination of all Indians.

greatly swayed public opinion resulting in the election of many more officials that hated Indians.

  • A New York editor, Brackenridge
  • rather than whites acknowledging Indian title to any land he believed that they had surrendered their claim having “not made better use of it” and by not doing so “forfeited all pretense to a claim.”
western indian confederacy
Western Indian Confederacy

War along the Ohio continued throughout the 1780s and 1790s

Shawnee leader, Tecumseh

Forming diplomatic relationships among southern tribes.

Confederacy designed to unite several native nations in a political and military movement in an effort to drive whites from their lands.

1791-92 Indian State

battle of fallen timbers 1794
Battle of Fallen Timbers, 1794

American General, Wayne Anthony

treaty of greenville 1795
Treaty of Greenville, 1795

12 nations forced to surrender a portion of eastern Indiana and all of Ohio

Opened millions of acres of land to settlement

Promised to end to British alliance

rise of a prophet
Rise of a Prophet

Lalawetheka & 1805 Tenskwatawa or Open Door

Doctrine of active resistance against white expansion and institutions.

End alcohol consumption

End adoption of white culture

Unite people against a common foe

  • 1806 Indiana territorial governor Harrison
    • wrote to the Delaware "if he is really a prophet, ask him to cause the sun to stand still, the moon to alters its course, the rivers to cease to flow"
  • Tenskwatawa accepted the challenge
    • Pointed out the day in which he would blot out the sun and assembled numerous followers on June 16, 1806.
    • total eclipse of the sun occurred.
      • His stock as a spiritual leader soared and hundreds of people joined his resistance movement.

Tecumseh - military and political solution to white expansion

Meeting with Governor Harrison 1810

No Indian or tribe has the right to sell even to each other much less to strangers that land was held in trust by all native Americans

“This land that was sold, and the goods that were given for it was only done by a few“

He was threatening Harrison not to crowd the people out of their country or it would produce trouble between them

1811 – Tecumseh informed Harrison of the Confederacy

If you want to avoid war, move off Indian lands

Enlisting support of Shawnees, Kickapoo's, Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Seminoles, Muscogee…

“War now, war forever, war upon the living, war upon the dead”

“The only hope of the red man is a war of extermination against all whites”

War of 1812

English “Alliances”

battle of moravian town thames in 1813
Battle of Moravian town/Thames in 1813

1813 Britain’s betrayal ended in Tecumseh’s death and the failure of the confederacies

Resistance continued, some factions of the same tribes that fought with the British sided with the Americans only to be turned on after the war. Some Delaware's, Shawnees, Seneca's, Wyandot, Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Muscogee

war of 1812
War of 1812

The war had two major causes: repeated British violations of American sovereignty, and American expansionism, which was later expressed as manifest destiny.


Ended with the

Treaty of Ghent